The high value-added utilization of corn straw can not only reduce pollution and resource waste, but also has far-reaching significance for exploring the industrial utilization of corn straw and sustainable agricultural development. Using microcrystalline cellulose (CSMCC) prepared from corn straw as raw material, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) as solvent system, dandelion extract (DE) and tea polyphenol (TP) as antibacterial agents, antibacterial composite film was prepared by blending method. The morphology and structure of the composite film were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, and the mechanical, optical, barrier and antibacterial properties were tested and analyzed. The results show that DE and TP are well combined with cellulose base film. The composite antibacterial agent DE-TP antibacterial composite film has better tensile strength (52.60±6.33 MPa), oxygen barrier performance (oxygen transmission coefficient is (1.65±0.25)×10−11
·s·Pa)) and better inhibition effect on Escherichia coli
and Staphylococcus aureus
than the DE and TP antibacterial composite films. At the same time, compared with the cellulose base film, elongation at break of DE-TP antibacterial composite film increased by 53.96%, and the light transmittance is (82.56±0.26)%, which has good mechanical and optical properties. It provides a new idea for the research and development of environment-friendly antibacterial composite film, which is important for controlling food spoilage and efficient utilization of biological resources.