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气相二氧化硅的异氰酸酯改性及其对浇注型聚氨酯弹性体力学性能的影响

周鑫 易玉华

周鑫, 易玉华. 气相二氧化硅的异氰酸酯改性及其对浇注型聚氨酯弹性体力学性能的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-8
引用本文: 周鑫, 易玉华. 气相二氧化硅的异氰酸酯改性及其对浇注型聚氨酯弹性体力学性能的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-8
Xin ZHOU, Yuhua YI. Isocyanate modified fumed silica and its effects on the mechanical properties of casting polyurethane elastomer[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: Xin ZHOU, Yuhua YI. Isocyanate modified fumed silica and its effects on the mechanical properties of casting polyurethane elastomer[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

气相二氧化硅的异氰酸酯改性及其对浇注型聚氨酯弹性体力学性能的影响

基金项目: 广州市科技计划项目(202102080477)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    易玉华,硕士,高级工程师,硕士生导师,研究方向为橡塑改性及其复合材料 E-mail: mmyhyi@scut.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Isocyanate modified fumed silica and its effects on the mechanical properties of casting polyurethane elastomer

  • 摘要: 为了改善气相二氧化硅(FS)/浇注型聚氨酯(PU)体系成型流动性,在制备预聚体的过程中,采用2,4-甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)对进行改性获得异氰酸酯改性的二氧化硅(NCO@FS),通过原位聚合法制备了NCO@FS/PU弹性体复合材料。采用FTIR、XPS及动态接触角对NCO@FS及FS进行了表征。结果表明:FS的表面羟基与TDI的NCO基团发生反应生成了氨酯基(NHCOO),改善了FS与PU间的界面相容性及界面结合。复合材料中NCO@FS质量分数为1.5wt%时,NCO@FS/PU复合材料的拉伸和撕裂强度分别为57 MPa和110.5 kN/m,比纯浇注型PU分别提高了31.6%和23.6%;玻璃化转变温度由3.4℃下降到−11.2℃,损耗因子tanδ由0.59下降到0.46。异氰酸酯改性FS适合制备FS增强浇注型聚氨酯复合材料。

     

  • 图  1  主要原材料结构式

    Figure  1.  Structural formula of main raw materials

    图  2  气相二氧化硅(FS)、2,4-甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)和TDI改性的二氧化硅(NCO@FS)的FTIR图谱

    Figure  2.  FTIR spectrum of fumed silica (FS)、2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and TDI modified silica (NCO@FS)

    图  3  FS的原位异氰酸酯改性及增强PU机制

    Figure  3.  the mechanism schematic of NCO@FS/PU

    图  4  FS和NCO@FS的XPS谱图

    Figure  4.  XPS curves of FS and NCO@FS

    图  5  FS和NCO@FS的Si 2p高分辨XPS谱图

    Figure  5.  High-resolution XPS spectra of Si 2p for FS and NCO@FS

    图  6  FS和NCO@FS的水(a)和PU预聚体(b)接触角图

    Figure  6.  Contact angle of FS and NCO@FS with water (a) and PU prepolymer (b)

    图  7  不同白碳黑含量的NCO@FS/PU复合材料的动态力学性能测试曲线:(a)储能模量与温度曲线;(b)损耗因子与温度曲线

    Figure  7.  DMA curves of NCO@FS/PU composites with different silica loading: (a) Storage modulus versus temperature; (b) Loss factor versus temperature

    图  8  FS/PU和NCO@FS/PU复合材料界面形貌

    Figure  8.  Interface morphologies of the FS/PU and NCO@FS/PU composites

    图  9  不同PU体系黏度

    Figure  9.  Viscosity time diagram of different PU

    表  1  FS和NCO@FS的XPS谱图中元素含量比较

    Table  1.   XPS atomic content for FS and NCO@FS

    SystemC/at%O/at%Si/at%N/at%C/SiO/Si
    FS45.7438.0316.2302.822.34
    NCO@FS71.9614.064.899.0914.722.88
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  FS/PU和NCO@FS/PU复合材料力学性能随FS质量分数的变化

    Table  2.   Variations in mechanical properties of composites with the mass fraction of FS and NCO@FS

    sampleTensile strength
    / MPa
    Tear strength
    /(kN·m−1)
    Elongation at Break / %Hardness
    /(Shore D)
    PU43.3(0.9)89.4(1.6)447(10)40(1)
    NCO@FS /PU-0.545.4(1.3)88.7(1.9)424(18)41(1)
    NCO@FS /PU-151.6(1.0)95.1(2.3)576(14)43(1)
    NCO@FS /PU-1.557.0(0.8)110.5(1.3)516(10)43(1)
    NCO@FS /PU-317.7(1.5)87.2(2.9)303(23)43(1)
    FS /PU-147.7(0.8)82.8(2.0)459(15)40(1)
    FS /PU-1.528.0(0.6)51.9(1.3)478(20)41(1)
    FS /PU-37.9(1.2)36.3(2.6)243(21)42(2)
    Notes: FS/PU-X and NCO@FS/PU-X stand for the composites with the silica mass fraction of x%; the data in parentheses refers to the standard deviation.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-11
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-26
  • 修回日期:  2022-02-17
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-15

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