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Tufting复合材料预制体成形及数值仿真研究进展

申皓 玛日耶姆·阿卜力米提 李志辉 祁欣 黄晋

申皓, 玛日耶姆·阿卜力米提, 李志辉, 等. Tufting复合材料预制体成形及数值仿真研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-19.
引用本文: 申皓, 玛日耶姆·阿卜力米提, 李志辉, 等. Tufting复合材料预制体成形及数值仿真研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-19.
SHEN Hao, ABULIMITI Mariyemu, LI Zhihui, et al. Advances in forming and numerical simulation research of tufted composite preforms[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: SHEN Hao, ABULIMITI Mariyemu, LI Zhihui, et al. Advances in forming and numerical simulation research of tufted composite preforms[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

Tufting复合材料预制体成形及数值仿真研究进展

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (12202467);江苏省自然科学基金(BK20220597)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    黄晋,博士,助理研究员,研究方向为复合材料结构与力学、热防护复合材料性能 E-mail: huangjin312@126.com

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Advances in forming and numerical simulation research of tufted composite preforms

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 12202467); Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20220597)
  • 摘要: 三维复合材料因其优异的抗分层能力,在航空航天等领域具有巨大的应用价值,近年来受到了国内外研究者的广泛关注。然而,传统三维复合材料制造周期长,工艺复杂度高,曲面成形难度大,已成为制约三维复合材料构件应用推广的关键难题之一。Tufting缝合(亦称“簇绒缝合”)是一种工艺简单的单边缝合技术,其缝合线非互锁的结构特征使Tufting缝合后的三维预制体在曲面上无缺陷成形变为可能。本文首先对Tufting缝合工艺的发展历程和Tufting缝合复合材料的结构特征进行了概述,其次梳理了现有关于Tufting缝合预制体曲面模压成形方面的研究,重点从成形性能分析、成形缺陷定义和数字化表征手段三个方面,指出了目前研究所取得的进步和尚缺少的不足,并对Tufting缝合预制体曲面模压成形的数值模拟方法进行了总结,点明了Tufting缝合预制体成形模型的特殊性,最后展望了Tufting缝合技术在复合材料预制体成形领域未来的发展方向。

     

  • 图  1  Tufting缝合工艺设备发展历史流程

    Figure  1.  The development of tufting equipment and process

    图  2  Tufting缝合原理:(a) Tufting缝合工艺流程示意图;(b)对心曲柄滑块机构;(c)偏置曲柄滑块机构

    Figure  2.  Principle of tufting: (a) Schematic of tufting process; (b) Centric slider-crank mechanism; (c) Off-set slider-crank mechanism

    图  3  Tufting缝合设备:(a) 英国克兰菲尔德大学KSL KL150 Tufting缝合机头[40]; (b) 英国克兰菲尔德大学KSL RS522 Tufting缝合机头[16];(c) 天津工业大学自研Tufting样机[45];(d) 扬州大学自研Tufting缝合样机

    Figure  3.  Tufting machines: (a) KSL KL150 Tufting head in Cranfield University[40]; (b) KSL RS522 Tufting head in Cranfield University [16]; (c) Tufting equipment developed by Tiangong University[45]; (d)Tufting equipment developed by Yangzhou University

    图  4  Tufting缝合线损伤:(a) Tufting缝合线磨损[41];(b) Tufting缝合线断裂[41];(c) Tufting缝合线的羽化度表征[52]

    Figure  4.  Degradation of tufting thread: (a) Yarn damage[41]; (b) Yarn rupture[41]; (c) Characterization of yarn damage[52]

    图  5  记忆合金Tufting缝合T型复合材料结构件(a) 测试后显示镍钛合金Tufting缝合的T型接头断裂的侧视照片;(b) 翼缘部分的镍钛合金Tufting缝合线的变形和拉出破坏;(c) 镍钛合金Tufting缝合线拉出和断裂扫描电子显微镜图像[57]

    Figure  5.  Composite T-joints using shape memory alloy tufts: (a) Side-view photograph of fractured T-joint following testing showing bridging and fracture of SMA tufts along the skin-flange interfaces. (b) Large-scale deformation and pull-out failure of SMA tufts along the skinflange section. (c) Scanning electron microscope image of pull-out and fracture of a SMA tuft[57]

    图  6  压边类型及作用:(a) 整体型压边;(b) 离散型压边;(c) 压边对不同方向Tufting缝合线的影响[14]

    Figure  6.  Types and effects of blank-holder: (a) Integral blank-holder;(b) Discrete blank-holder;(c) Influence of blank-holder on tufting yarn with different direction [14]

    图  7  预制体收缩量示意图:(a) 弱约束预制体;(b) 强约束预制体[39]

    Figure  7.  Schematic of material draw-in: (a) Preform with weak connection;(b) Preform with strong connection[39]

    图  8  Tufting缝合图案对预制体收缩量的影响[33]

    Figure  8.  Influence of tufting patterns on material draw-in[33]

    图  9  预制体层间滑移:(a) 层间滑移测量方法[78];(b) Tufting缝合对预制体层间滑移的影响[33]

    Figure  9.  Interlayer sliding of preform: (a) Interlayer sliding measurement[78]; (b) Influence of tufting yarn on interlayer sliding[33]

    图  10  剪切角的测量[84]

    Figure  10.  Measurement for shear angle[84]

    图  11  织物剪切变形对Tufting缝合线的影响[86]

    Figure  11.  Influence of fabric shear deformation on tufting yarns[86]

    图  12  算法示意图:(a) Tufting缝合简化模型,(b) Tufting缝合全结构模型,(c) 滑动绳索接触算法[38]

    Figure  12.  Schematics of algorithm: (a) Simplified model of tufting, (b) Full structure model of tufting, (c) Sliding-thread contact algorithm[38]

    图  13  算法示意图:(a) 接触搜索算法, (b) Tufting缝合相对滑移模型[38]

    Figure  13.  Schematics of algorithm: (a) Detection algorithm of contact (b) Relative sliding model of tufting yarn[38]

    图  14  Tufting缝合成形实验与仿真对比[38]

    Figure  14.  Comparison between the forming experiment and simulation with tufting [38]

    表  1  基准样件实验常用凸模形状

    Table  1.   Common punch geometries for benchmark forming experiments

    Punch Geometry Hemisphere Double domes Tetrahedron Prism Square-box Cylinder
    Schematic
    Number of edges
    0 0 3 4 8 1
    Number of triple points 0 0 1 2 4 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  成形缺陷[26]

    Table  2.   Forming defects[26]

    Terminology Definition Schematic
    Out-of-plane defects
    Wrinkles When the fabric deforms out-of-plane taking the shape of a waved curve that can vary in length, number and magnitude
    Folds When the fabric deforms in an out-of-plane curved form, identical to the “wrinkles” mechanism described, the two sides of the curves will fall, one on the other, multiplying the thickness of the fabric locally
    Buckles When the shifting of the fiber position out-of-plane is randomly creating an irregular yarns pattern distribution
    Bridging When forming a curved concave form, the material retreats in a corner and the fabric is no longer in contact with the shaping form and stay suspended mid-air
    In-plane defects
    Yarn sliding The yarns slides from its initial position to another following its longitudinal or perpendicular direction
    Yarn misalignment When the yarns are curved locally in plane, and the
    yarns are unparallel
    Yarn rupture By applying high tensile stress on the yarn, higher than its maximum resistant stress, it will break the fiber
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  Tufting缝合图案对褶皱缺陷的影响[34]

    Table  3.   Effect of tufting pattern on wrinkles[34]

    Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5
    Tufting pattern
    Wrinkles
    Photos of samples
    Wrinkle ratio 27.6% 37.4% 20.3% 25.4% 32.1%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  连续纤维复合材料预制体成形过程数值仿真方法

    Table  4.   Numerical simulation method of continuous fiber composite preform during the forming process

    Preform structures Modeling scales Constitutive laws Finite element types Features
    3D woven
    preforms
    Macroscopic Hyperelastic Specific shell[9497] For predicting the transverse shear deformations in the thickness direction during the forming of 3D woven preforms
    Hypoelastic
    Mesoscopic Hyperelastic Solid+inter-yarn contact(penalty method)[98,99] For predicting yarn deformation and its defects during the forming of 3D woven preforms
    Hypoelastic
    Macroscopic + Mesoscopic Hyperelastic Solid [100] More efficient calculation compared to complete mesoscopic methods
    Microscopic Elastic Rod+inter-fibers contact algorithm (penalty method) [101] For predicting the deformation behavior of fibers during the weaving process of 3D woven preforms
    Stithed preforms Macroscopic + Mesoscopic (1)Fabrics:hyperelastic
    (2)Stitching thread:elastc
    Shell+Rod+inter-layer contact algorithm+fabric-thread contact algorithm [36,37] For predicting macroscopic forming defects such as wrinkles, which can only describe stitching connection between two layers of fabric because the stitching thread is represented by a single 1D rod
    NCF
    (Non-crimp fabric)
    Mesoscopic Fabric yarns and stitching thread:non-linear elastic Solid+Rod/Beam+yarn-thread contact algorithm [102,103] For predicting the gapping defects due to yarn slippage during forming of NCF
    Macroscopic + Mesoscopic (1) Fabrics:hyperelastic
    (2) Stitching thread:elastc
    Shell+Rod+inter-layer contact algorithm+ specific fabric-thread contact algorithm (Friction thresold method) [78,83] For predicting macroscopic forming defects such as wrinkles
    Macroscopic (1) Shear and tensile deformation of fabrics:elastic-plastic;
    (2)In-plane transverse compression of fabrics:non-linear elastic
    Shell [104] For predicting the gapping defects due to yarn slippage and the wrinkling defects during forming of NCF
    Tufted preforms Macroscopic + Mesoscopic (1) Fabrics:hyperelastic
    (2) Tufting thread:elastic
    Shell+Rod+inter-layer contact algorithm+ specific fabric-thread contact algorithm (Sliding thread method)[38] Breaks the ply limit of the models for stitching and NCF, for predicting the wrinkling defects during forming
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-01-30
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