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连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料工艺缺陷及其失效行为研究进展

张鑫 郑锡涛 杨甜甜 宋璐阳 闫雷雷

张鑫, 郑锡涛, 杨甜甜, 等. 连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料工艺缺陷及其失效行为研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-24.
引用本文: 张鑫, 郑锡涛, 杨甜甜, 等. 连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料工艺缺陷及其失效行为研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-24.
ZHANG Xin, ZHENG Xitao, YANG Tiantian, et al. Review of process defects and failure behaviors of continuous fiber-reinforced composite materials via 3D printing[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: ZHANG Xin, ZHENG Xitao, YANG Tiantian, et al. Review of process defects and failure behaviors of continuous fiber-reinforced composite materials via 3D printing[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料工艺缺陷及其失效行为研究进展

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(12372141);航空科学基金(201909053001);陕西省人工结构功能材料与器件重点实验室基本科研业务费(AFMD-KFJJ-21212);
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    闫雷雷,博士,副教授,博士生导师,研究方向为连续纤维增强复合材料多功能一体化设计、电磁隐身/承载一体化结构设计与表征(吸波、透波、频率选择、电磁屏蔽)、轻质多孔材料和结构的轻量化设计及力学行为研究 E-mail: yanleilei@nwpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Review of process defects and failure behaviors of continuous fiber-reinforced composite materials via 3D printing

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.12372141);Aeronautical Science Foundation of China(No.201909053001);Fundamental Research Funds of Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Artificially-Structured Functional Materials and Devices (AFMD-KFJJ-21212)
  • 摘要: 因设计自由度高、无需模具和快速制造等优点,连续纤维增强3D打印已成为当今最具创新性的先进复合材料成型技术之一。本文综述了连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料工艺缺陷及失效行为的最新研究进展,引入了“干/湿/干湿-混合”的概念对打印工艺进行了系统性分类阐述,重点介绍了由于工艺过程引入的三种缺陷及其特点。随后,归纳了连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料的失效力学行为,并分析了引发失效的主要原因。最后,针对如何减少工艺缺陷、改善失效模式和降本增效对连续纤维增强复合材料3D打印技术的未来进行了展望。

     

  • 图  1  综述连续纤维增强3D打印技术:工艺、缺陷与失效模式

    Figure  1.  Review of continuous fiber-reinforced 3D printing: processes, defects and failure modes

    图  2  连续纤维增强复合材料的湿法3D打印:(a)-(b)原位浸渍熔融沉积;(c)液态沉积成型;和(d)直接墨水书写

    Figure  2.  Wet 3D printing of continuous fiber-reinforced composites: (a)-(b) in-situ prepreg fused deposition; (c) liquid deposition modelling; and (d) direct ink writing.

    图  3  连续纤维增强复合材料的干法3D打印:(a)材料挤出熔融沉积和(b)激光辅助固结

    Figure  3.  Dry 3D printing of continuous fiber-reinforced composites: (a) material extrusion fused deposition; and (b) laser-assisted consolidation

    图  4  连续纤维增强复合材料的干湿混合法3D打印:(a)预浸丝束共挤出和(b)紫外光辅助固结

    Figure  4.  Dry-wet mixed 3D printing of continuous fiber-reinforced composites: (a) prepreg tow co-extrusion; and (b) UV-assisted consolidation

    图  5  连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料的工艺缺陷分类

    Figure  5.  Classification of process defects in continuous fiber reinforced 3D printing composite materials

    图  6  层间孔隙的微观形貌:(a)典型的层间孔隙SEM照片[87],(b)不同纤维体积含量构件的SEM照片[88],(c)典型的层间孔隙显微CT照片[86]和(d)编织多层复合材料中的层间孔隙显微CT照片[89]

    Figure  6.  Microscopic morphology of inter-layer voids: (a) the typical SEM picture of interlayer voids [87]; (b) the SEM photo of parts with different fiber volume contents [88]; (c) the typical micro-CT of interlayer voids snapshot [86]; and (d) the micro-CT photo of inter-layer voids in woven multilayer composites [89]

    图  7  列间孔隙的微观形貌:(a)含典型列间孔隙的横截面和界面特征[92];(b)不同的堆叠方式形成不同列间孔隙形貌[93],(c)相邻两列之间树脂的合并过程原理[93];(d)MarkForged打印机制造弯曲测试样本横截面[93];(e)3D打印连续玻璃纤维增强尼龙的样品的显微照片[94] 和(f)多列样本的横截面[95]

    Figure  7.  Microscopic morphology of inter-column voids: (a) the cross-section and interface characteristics of typical inter-column voids [92]; (b) the different inter-column pore morphologies formed by two kinds of stacking methods[93]; (c) the merging process of resin between two adjacent columns [93]; (d) the cross section of a bending test sample manufactured by MarkForged printer [93]; (e) the micrograph of a 3D printed continuous glass fiber-reinforced nylon sample [94] ; and (f) the cross-section of multi-column sample[95]

    图  8  纤维束缺陷的微观形貌:(a)一个丝束在不同放大倍数下的SEM照片[86];(b)-(d)纤维束横断面显微照片[86, 93, 96],(e)纤维束边界上的弱界面[92];(f)纤维束内部不规则孔隙[91]和(g)碳纤维和PLA树脂之间的弱界面[97]

    Figure  8.  Microscopic morphology of fiber bundle defects: (a) the SEM photos of a fiber bundle at different magnifications [86]; (b)-(d) the micrographs of fiber bundle cross-sections [86, 93, 96]; (e) the weak interface on the fiber bundle boundary [92]; (f) the irregular voids inside the fiber bundle [91]; and (g) the weak interface between carbon fiber and PLA resin [97]

    图  9  纤维拔出失效模式:(a)界面性能和断裂模式的演变 [95];(b)损伤演化过程和失效机制[96];(c)纤维束边界上的弱界面[89];(d)断口的光学显微照片[96]和(e)断口的SEM照片[97]

    Figure  9.  Fiber pull-out failure mode: (a) the evolution of interface properties and fracture modes [95]; (b) the damage evolution process and failure mechanism [96]; (c) the weak interface at fiber bundle boundary [89]; (d) the optical micrograph of the fracture surface [96]; and (e) the SEM photograph of the fracture surface [97]

    图  10  纤维束缺陷的形成与纤维拔出的改善:(a)纤维束缺陷和其导致的弱界面 [101];(b)一维流动达西定律的主要参数[102-104];(c)宏观和微观浸渍现象[103];和(d)湿法和干法连续纤维3D打印的单束纱线的破坏断口[105]

    Figure  10.  Formation of fiber bundle defects and improvement of fiber pull-out: (a) fiber bundle defects and the resulting weak interfaces [101]; (b) Main parameters of Darcy’s law for one-dimensional flow [102-104]; (c) macroscopic and microscopic impregnation phenomena [103]; and (d) failure fractures of single bundle yarns for wet and dry continuous fiber 3D printing [105]

    图  11  分层失效模式:(a)演化方式与微观形貌 [107];(b)弯曲载荷下的失效模式和宏观形貌[95];(c)拉伸载荷下的失效模式、宏观和微观形貌[95]和(d)不同种类纤维增强复合材料的分层微观形貌[108]

    Figure  11.  Delamination failure mode: (a) the evolution mode and microscopic morphology [107]; (b) the failure mode and macroscopic morphology under the bending load [95]; (c) the failure mode, macroscopic and microscopic morphology under tensile loads [95]; and (d) the delamination micromorphology of different types of fiber-reinforced composite materials [108]

    图  12  层间力学性能的表征:(a) DCB试验 [109-112];(b) ENF试验 [109];(c) ILSS试验 [113];(d)纤维桥联现象[109];(e) DCB试验剥离表面的SEM照片[108];(f)ENF试验后断裂表面的SEM照片[109] ;和(g)ILSS试验中分层损伤演化的DIC云图[113]

    Figure  12.  Characterization of interlayer mechanical properties: (a) DCB testing [109-112]; (b) ENF testing [109]; (c) ILSS testing [113]; (d) fiber bridging phenomenon [109]; (e) SEM photo of peeling surface in DCB testing [108]; (f) SEM photo of fracture surface after ENF testing [109]; and (g) DIC cloud image of delamination damage evolution in ILSS testing [113]

    图  13  弯曲开裂失效模式:(a)裂纹的产生和演化过程原理 [99];(b)四级演化过程的微观照片[99]和(c)弯曲载荷下的裂纹萌生和发展过程[95]

    Figure  13.  Bending cracking failure mode: (a) the crack generation and evolution process [99]; (b) the microscopic of the fourth-level evolution process [99]; and (c) the crack initiation and development process under bending loads [95]

    图  14  工艺缺陷与弯曲开裂断口:(a)列间孔隙形成过程 [86];(b)弯曲开裂断口的SEM照片 [117];和(c)弯曲载荷下压缩区与拉伸区的SEM照片 [118]

    Figure  14.  Process defects and bending cracking fractures: (a) formation process of inter-column pores [86]; (b) SEM photos of bending cracking fractures [117]; and (c) SEM photos of compression zone and tensile zone under bending load [118]

    表  1  根据“干/湿/干湿-混合”概念分类的连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料的制备工艺

    Table  1.   Manufacturing processes of continuous fiber-reinforced 3D printing composites classified according to the concept of“dry/wet/dry-wet-mixed”

    Classification Manufacturing processes Fibers/Reinforcement Consumables/Matrix
    Wet method In-situ impregnation fused
    deposition [35-38]
    High-performance continuous dry
    fibers: carbon fibers [45], glass fibers [46], Aramid fibers [47], basalt fibers [48];
    Natural dry fibers: flax fibers [49], pineapple leave fibers [50]
    Thermoplastic resin: Polyetheretherketone [52], Polyphenylene sulfide [53], Polyamides [54], Polypropylene [55], Polycarbonate [56], Polylactic acid [57];
    Thermoplastic resins with discontinuous fibrous reinforcements [58-59]
    Liquid deposition molding [46-48] Epoxy resin [46-48]
    Direct ink writing [49-51] Acrylic ink [50];
    Liquid crystal elastomer [51]
    Dry method Material extrusion fused
    deposition [72, 75-76]
    Continuous fiber thermoplastic [67-71];
    Thermoset prepreg [72-73]
    /
    Laser-Assisted Consolidation [77-78]
    Wet-dry-mixed method Prepreg tow co-extrusion [26, 79-81] Continuous fiber thermoplastic [70-71];
    Thermoset prepreg [72-73]
    Thermoplastic resin [52-57];
    Thermoplastic resins with discontinuous fibrous reinforcements [58-59]
    UV-Assisted Consolidation [74, 84] Continuous fiber light-cured prepreg [74] Light curing resins [74];
    Light-thermal dual-cure resins [84]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  连续纤维增强3D打印复合材料的失效行为、相关工艺缺陷、失效机制与改善方式

    Table  2.   Failure behavior, related process defects, failure mechanisms, and improvement methods of continuous fiber-reinforced 3D printing composite materials

    Failure behavior Related process defects Failure mechanisms Improvement methods
    Fiber pull-out [92, 98-100] Fiber bundle
    defects [86, 91, 96-97]
    The crack initiates at the weak interface between the fiber and the matrix and then propagates until the fiber is pulled out [99] Pre-impregnating the fibers [104], print using dry method [104], increase molding pressure [98] and fiber pretreatment using sizing agents [105]
    Delamination [95, 106-107] Inter-layer voids [87-89],
    inter-column voids [92-95],
    and fiber bundle
    defects [86, 91, 96-97]
    Weak interfaces sprout and expand rapidly along periodic distributions [106] Reduce process defects: improve
    nozzles [113], vacuum printing [90] and laser-assisted heating [77]
    Change the distribution of defects and weak interfaces to prevent rapid crack growth [114]
    Bending cracking [95, 99] Inter-column voids [92-95,115] and fiber bundle
    defects [ 96-97,116-117]
    Cracks initiate from the upper surface of the tensile side and gradually expand toward the neutral axis until the structure is completely broken [95, 99] Perform hot pressing post-processing [91], adjust printing parameter settings [117] and adopt variable stiffness structural
    design [118]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-06
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