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有机相变材料强化及耦合优化电池热管理系统的研究进展

肖鑫 冯泽 王云峰 张莹 高峰

肖鑫, 冯泽, 王云峰, 等. 有机相变材料强化及耦合优化电池热管理系统的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(7): 3795-3811. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221024.001
引用本文: 肖鑫, 冯泽, 王云峰, 等. 有机相变材料强化及耦合优化电池热管理系统的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(7): 3795-3811. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221024.001
XIAO Xin, FENG Ze, WANG Yunfeng, et al. Recent progress in enhancement of physical properties of organic phase change materials and optimization of coupling thermal management of batteries[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(7): 3795-3811. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221024.001
Citation: XIAO Xin, FENG Ze, WANG Yunfeng, et al. Recent progress in enhancement of physical properties of organic phase change materials and optimization of coupling thermal management of batteries[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(7): 3795-3811. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221024.001

有机相变材料强化及耦合优化电池热管理系统的研究进展

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221024.001
基金项目: 上海市浦江人才计划(20PJ1400200);云南省农村能源工程重点实验室开放基金项目(2022KF001);中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金(2232021D-11);上海市引进海外高层次人才计划;东华大学高层次人才专项基金;东华大学青年教师科研启动基金
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    肖鑫,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为建筑蓄能及热管理 E-mail: xin.xiao@dhu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TK02;TM912;TB332

Recent progress in enhancement of physical properties of organic phase change materials and optimization of coupling thermal management of batteries

Funds: Shanghai Pujiang Program (20PJ1400200); Yunnan Provincial Rural Energy Engineering Key Laboratory (2022KF001); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (2232021D-11); Shanghai Overseas High Level Talents Program; Dr. Xin Xiao also thank for the High Level Talent Program and Initial Funding for Young Researchers of Donghua University
  • 摘要: 为满足电动汽车锂离子电池热管理需求,具有优良温控效果的相变材料(PCM)冷却逐渐成为研究热点。本文从有机PCM物性不足出发,概括了目前复合有机PCM的制备及改进方向:添加多维高导热材料(如碳材料、纳米金属、泡沫金属等)强化导热;添加共聚物(如聚乙烯、热塑性弹性体等)提高材料柔韧性和添加阻燃剂(如红磷、聚磷酸铵等)提高阻燃效果以改善其实用性。分别指出膨胀石墨、苯乙烯-乙烯-丁二烯-苯乙烯和复合使用红磷与聚磷酸铵对导热、柔性和阻燃的显著提升。同时描述了有机PCM与热管、液冷、空冷等散热方式耦合后系统强化换热的效果,总结耦合热管时需要考虑不同热管排布;耦合液冷或空冷需要设计合适流道增强换热。随后介绍了通过模拟仿真分析有机PCM用于电池热管理系统影响因素及最佳使用工况的研究。最后总结有机PCM用于电池热管理的进展及不足,其难点仍在于其可燃和导电性的改善以及柔性有机PCM在室温下柔韧性不足,有机PCM耦合传统散热系统的车载可靠性和循环可行性也缺乏相应探讨,并为今后有机PCM用于电池热管理提出一定建议。

     

  • 图  1  蛛网结构三维石墨烯骨架(sw-GS)/石蜡(PW)的制备示意图[37]

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of preparation of spider web-inspired 3D graphene/paraffin (sw-GS/PW)[37]

    rGO—Reduced graphene oxide

    图  2  PW添加苯乙烯-丁二烯-苯乙烯(SBS)、热塑性酯弹性体(TPEE)、膨胀石墨(EG)后的拉伸状态和抗弯曲能力[47]

    Figure  2.  Tensile state and bending resistance of PW with styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS), thermoplastic ester elastomer (TPEE) and expanded graphite (EG)[47]

    图  3  柔性复合有机PCM的SEM图像[47, 51, 53]

    Figure  3.  SEM images of flexible organic PCM[47, 51, 53]

    EPDM—Ethylene propylene diene monomer

    图  4  添加不同阻燃剂对热失控(TR)时峰值热释放率(HRR)降低对比[59, 61, 63-66]

    Figure  4.  Comparison of reduction of peak heat release rate (HRR) when thermal runaway (TR) appears with different flame retardants[59, 61, 63-66]

    图  5  不同聚磷酸铵(APP)类型阻燃PCM燃烧后碳层的SEM图像[63-64]

    Figure  5.  SEM images of carbon layer with different ammonium polyphosphate (APP) flame retardant PCM after combustion[63-64]

    图  6  耦合热管后PCM不同散热策略[67-68]

    Figure  6.  Different heat dissipation strategies of PCM after coupling heat pipes[67-68]

    图  7  PCM耦合不同液冷或空冷流道示意图[78-81]

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of PCM system structure coupled with different liquid or air cooling channels[78-81]

    IC—Integrated circuit

    图  8  换热系数h与努塞尔数Nu随入口流速和入口尺寸的变化[98]

    Figure  8.  Variation of heat transfer coefficient h and Nusselt number Nu with inlet velocity and inlet size[98]

    图  9  不同耦合系统电池最高温度的仿真效果[73, 85, 93]

    Figure  9.  Simulation of maximum temperatures of battery in different coupling systems[73, 85, 93]

    ΔTd—Temperature difference

    表  1  部分用于电池热管理(BTM)的有机固-液相变材料(PCM)热物性

    Table  1.   Thermo-physical properties of organic solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM) for battery thermal management (BTM)

    PCMThermal conductivity/(W·m−1·K−1)Latent heat/(kJ·kg−1)Phase change temperature/
    Ref.
    Paraffin(PW)0.225541-44/—[20]
    PW0.2230036/—[21]
    PW0.2120040/—[22]
    Lauric acid0.1517743/—[23]
    Myristic acid18753.7/—[23]
    Palmitic acid0.1718662.3/—[23]
    Stearic acid0.1720370.7/—[23]
    Capric acid0.15152.728.9/31.9[24]
    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 60014620-25[23]
    PEG 10000.29142/—35.9/29.9[25]
    PEG 15000.31163.4/—48.9/42.9[25]
    PEG 3400171.656.4[23]
    Tetradecanol20538[26]
    1-dodecanol20026[26]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  BTM用有机PCM热导率强化及其热物性

    Table  2.   Thermal conductivity enhancements and thermo-physical properties of organic PCM for BTM

    PCM and
    additives
    Mass fractionThermal conductivity
    of pure PCM/
    (W·m−1·K−1)
    Thermal conductivity of
    composite PCM/
    (W·m−1·K−1)
    Phase change
    temperature/
    Latent
    heat/
    (kJ·kg−1)
    Ref.
    EG/PW20∶800.151.90[29]
    GNP/PW20∶800.150.87[29]
    CNT/PW20∶800.150.37[29]
    Graphene/PW20∶800.150.49[29]
    Nano-Al/PW20∶800.250.7853.89/49.46282.50/281.20[30]
    Nano-TiO2/PW20∶800.250.4354.28/50.74283.09/280.64[30]
    AlN/EG/ER/PW20∶3∶27∶500.204.3347.20/—116.30[33]
    EG/ER/copper foam/PW0.232.9049.80/—75.00[36]
    sw-GS/PW2.25∶97.750.192.5853.50/45.40172.50/158.90[37]
    NPC-Al/PEG 200015∶850.270.4154.40/—155.30/—[38]
    CNT/MOFs/PEG 20005.16∶24.84∶700.300.4652.40/27.4096.20/90.10[39]
    MWCNT/graphene/PW0.3∶0.7∶990.390.8745.30/40.80203.80/198.00[40]
    EG/PW10∶900.286.439.50187.88[42]
    CNT/PW10∶900.280.3940.30172.62[42]
    h-BN/Na2SiO3/PW18∶0.9∶81.10.120.8552.30/47.90165.40/176.10[43]
    EG/aluminum foam/graphene/PW0.207.1[44]
    NPC/myristic acid-stearic acid12∶26.4∶61.60.170.3749.45/—164.33/—[45]
    EG/SiO2/low-density polyethylene/RT 457∶5.5∶30∶57.53.3044.0077.80[46]
    Notes: EG—Expanded graphite; GNP—Graphene nanosheets; CNT—Carbon nanotubes; ER—Epoxy resin; MWCNT—Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; NPC—N-doped porous carbons; RT 45—Rubitherm 45.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  BTM用有机PCM柔性强化及其热物性

    Table  3.   Flexibility enhancements and thermo-physical properties of organic PCM for BTM

    PCM and
    additives
    Thermal
    conductivity/
    (W·m−1·K−1)
    Phase change
    temperature/
    Latent
    heat/
    (kJ·kg−1)
    Mechanical propertyRef.
    Test temperature/℃Tensile and
    bending
    strength/MPa
    Modulus of
    elasticity/
    MPa
    EG/SBS/TPEE/PW(5:10:5:80)1.20(30℃)56.7/—172.6/—600.09/—[47]
    EG/TPC-et/PW(10:45:45)1.6446.4/—102.0250.88/0.14[48]
    EG/OBC/PW(10:45:45)1.5750.1/—101.0255.44/1.21[48]
    EVA/EG/PW(47.5:5:47.5)1.7053.0121.0300.83/0.02[49]
    SEPS/EG/PW(9.5:5:85.5)2.6748.0/—211.950[50]
    SBS/AlN/PW(50:15:35)0.5046.857.1500.16/0.1667.00[51]
    h-BN/SEBS/PW(20:20:60)2.8040.1-44.3/—148.30.72[52]
    EG/SBS/EPDM/PW(5:12:3:80)1.2550.9/—133600.51/—[53]
    OBC/EG/PW(19:5:76)2.3439.5185.46063.90[54]
    SBS/EG/PW(60:3:57)0.8850.678.30.34/0.51[55]
    EG/SEBS/PW(5:20:80)1.2347.4159.2/166.5[56]
    OBC/EG/eicosane(20:3:80)1.2133.5170.2[57]
    OBC/EG/tetracosane(20:3:80)1.1847.4175.1[57]
    HDPE/EG/eicosane(20:3:80)1.2533.4169.0[57]
    EG/silicon rubber/h-BN/PW(3:55:5:28)0.9547.3/—62.70.53/—[58]
    Notes: TPC-et—Copolyester thermoplastic elastomer with polyether soft segment; OBC—Olefin block copolymer; EVA—Ethylene vinylacetate; SEPS—Styrene butene propylene styrene; SEBS—Styrene ethylene butylene styrene; HDPE—High density polyethylene.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  部分BTM用阻燃PCM热物性及阻燃效果

    Table  4.   Thermo-physical properties and flame retardant effects of flame retardant PCM for BTM

    PCMFlame
    retardant
    Mass fraction/
    wt%
    Thermal
    conductivity/
    (W·m−1·K−1)
    Latent
    heat/
    (kJ·kg−1)
    Phase change
    temperature/℃
    LOI/%Temperature
    peak of TR/
    Peak HRR before
    and after
    antiflaming/
    (kW·m−2)
    Ref.
    OBC/EG/PW(13:5:70)AlCl3/Sb2O3/
    glass fibre
    Padded1.48130.7/—47.1/—26.0462.3/190.3[59]
    Silica aerogel/PW(60:40)APP/dipentaerythritolCoated0.0579.2/—39.6/—56.3691[60]
    Benzoyl peroxide/
    EG/1,6-hexanediol diacrylate/octadecyl acrylate(4:12:6:318)
    Al(OH)3151.2671.546.1639242.5/204.4[61]
    EG/SBS/PW(3:12:70)APP/phosphoric acid/ZnO15~1120.045.335.92980.0/801.0[63]
    EG/ER/PW(4:50:80)APP/RP381.1081.245.0-48.027.6870.9/313.1[64]
    PWAluminium trihydrate/
    Mg(OH)2
    50115.050.036429.0/15.5(kW)[65]
    PWAPP5098.151.476429.0/23.9(kW)[65]
    Polyester fiber/PEG
    APP150.3870.128.7654.7/385.7[66]
    Notes: PEG—Polyethylene glycol; APP—Ammonium polyphosphate; RP—Red phosphorus; TR—Thermal runaway; HRR—Heat release rate.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  PW耦合热管BTM系统控温优化对比

    Table  5.   Optimization of temperature control of PW coupled with heat pipe BTM system

    PCMCharge/discharge rateT1 max and ΔT1 max/℃T2 max and ΔT2 max/℃Ref.
    RT44 HC60 W52.8/—
    (heatpipe)
    45.9/—[70]
    PW2 W48.3/—
    (heatpipe)
    39.0/—[71]
    EG/PW10 W47.2/5.9
    (PCM)
    45.1/4.7[68]
    EG/PW3 C45.5/2.5(PCM)44.1/1.7[74]
    Copper foam/PW5 C52.5/4.2(PCM)44.9/3.6[67]
    Notes: T1 max and ΔT1 max—Maximum temperature and maximum temperature difference with single cooling method; T2 max and ΔT2 max—Maximum temperature and maximum temperature difference with coupled cooling method; RT44 HC—Rubitherm 44 high crystallinity.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  耦合液冷或空冷后BTM系统控温优化

    Table  6.   Optimization of temperature control of BTM system coupled with liquid cooling or air cooling

    PCMMethod of couplingCharge/discharge rateT1 max and ΔT1 max/℃T2 max and ΔT2 max/℃Ref.
    h-BN/SEBS/PWLiquid cooling5 C52.9/7.9
    (Liquid cooling)
    44.0/3.2[52]
    PEG 1000Liquid cooling0.9 C32.0/1.2(PEG 1000)30.0/0.6[79]
    Copper foam/PWLiquid cooling12.5 W60.0/—
    (Liquid cooling)
    45.1/—[83]
    EG/RT44 HCLiquid cooling2 C50.0/4.1
    (Liquid cooling)
    42.0/1.2[85]
    EG/Lipin/PWLiquid cooling3 C45.10/—
    (PCM)
    41.1/4.0[86]
    Copper foam/RT25 HCLiquid cooling2 C39.00/—
    (RT25 HC)
    25.0/1.0[87]
    Aluminium foam/RT27Air cooling1 C25.6/—[82]
    Copper foam/PWAir cooling5 W46.6/—
    (Air cooling)
    35.8/—[80]
    Cetane stearic acid/EG/PWAir cooling2 C51.9/2.6[81]
    PEG 1000Air cooling2 C37.0/—[25]
    Copper wire/PWAir cooling2.45 W43.0/—
    (PCM)
    26.0/—[84]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  BTM仿真模拟常用的3种数学物理模型

    Table  7.   3 kinds of mathematical and physical models commonly used in BTM simulation

    ModelEquation of definitionParameterRef.
    Electrochemical heat
    generation model
    $q = {R_{\rm{i}}}{I^2} - IT\dfrac{{\partial U}}{{\partial T}}$ Notes: Ri—Equivalent internal resistance of the battery; I—Current; T—Temperature of battery; qHeat flux; UVoltage. [92]
    Effective heat capacity model $\rho {c_{\rm{p}}}(T)\dfrac{{\partial T}}{{\partial t}} = \lambda \dfrac{{{\partial ^2}T}}{{\partial {x^2}}}$
    ${c_{\rm p}} = \left\{ \begin{gathered} {c_{\rm ps}},T < {T_{\rm c}} - \Delta T \\ \dfrac{L}{{2\Delta T}} + \dfrac{{{c_{\rm ps}} + {c_{\rm pl}}}}{2},{T_{\rm c}} - \Delta T \leqslant T \leqslant {T_{\rm c}} + \Delta T \\ {c_{\rm pl}},T > {T_{\rm c}} + \Delta T \\ \end{gathered} \right.$
    Notes: L—Liquid fraction; λ—Thermal conductivity; t—Time; x—Distance; cps, cpl—Specific heat capacities of solid and liquid PCM respectively; ΔT—Half of phase change temperature range; Tc—Cent temperature of the phase change temperature range. [93]
    Enthalpy model $\begin{gathered} \rho \dfrac{{\partial H}}{{\partial t}} = \lambda \dfrac{{{\partial ^2}T}}{{\partial {x^2}}} \\ H = \int_{{T_0}}^T {{c_{\rm p}}dT} + \beta \gamma \\ \left\{ \begin{gathered} \beta = 0,T < {T_{\rm s}}{\text{ }} \\ \beta = 0,T > {T_{\rm l}} \\ \beta = \dfrac{{T - {T_{\rm s}}}}{{{T_{\rm l}} - {T_{\rm s}}}},{T_{\rm s}} < T < {T_{\rm l}} \\ \end{gathered} \right. \\ \end{gathered} $ Notes: ρ—Density; H—Total enthalpy; T0—Temperature when the enthalpy is 0 kJ·kg−1; β—Liquid fraction; γ—Latent heat; Ts and Tl—Solidification and melting temperatures of PCM, respectively. [94]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-23
  • 修回日期:  2022-09-28
  • 录用日期:  2022-10-16
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