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纳米增强微胶囊复合相变材料的研究进展

王成君 汪林强 王瑞娜 段志英 孟淑娟 申涛 苏琼

王成君, 汪林强, 王瑞娜, 等. 纳米增强微胶囊复合相变材料的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-19.
引用本文: 王成君, 汪林强, 王瑞娜, 等. 纳米增强微胶囊复合相变材料的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-19.
WANG Cheng-jun, WANG Lin-qiang, WANG Rui-na, et al. Research Progress of Nano-enhanced Microcapsule Composite Phase Change Materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: WANG Cheng-jun, WANG Lin-qiang, WANG Rui-na, et al. Research Progress of Nano-enhanced Microcapsule Composite Phase Change Materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

纳米增强微胶囊复合相变材料的研究进展

基金项目: 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目资助(31920230022,31920230023);西北民族大学引进人才科研项目(xbmuyjrc2023011);甘肃省高等学校创新基金项目(2021B-065);国家自然自然科学基金(21968032,22165025);甘肃省科技计划项目(20YF8FA045);西北民族大学化学学科创新团队(1110130139,1110130141)。
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王成君,女,博士,副教授,研究方向为复合相变储能材料。 E-mail:573728404@qq.com

    苏琼,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为功能复合材料。 E-mail: E-mail: hgsq@xbmu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TK02

Research Progress of Nano-enhanced Microcapsule Composite Phase Change Materials

Funds: Central Universities' Basic Scientific Research Expenses Program (31920230022, 31920230023); Northwest University for Nationalities’ Talent Recruitment Scientific Research Project (xbmuyjrc2023011); Gansu Province Higher Education Innovation Fund Project (2021B-065); Natural Science Foundation of China (21968032, 22165025); Gansu Provincial Science and Technology Program (20YF8FA045); Northwest Minzu University Innovation Team in Chemistry Discipline (1110130139, 1110130141).
  • 摘要: 相变材料(PCM)可以弥合热能供需在时间和空间上的差距,被广泛应用于热能存储和热管理系统中。然而,单一的PCM具有易泄漏、体积变化、相分离和腐蚀等缺陷,因此,通过微胶囊技术将PCM封装制备微胶囊复合相变材料(MEPCM),并通过不同纳米填料增强其性能,既可以有效克服以上缺陷,又能提高其热性能和运行稳定性。本文首先介绍了MEPCM的芯材和壳体的选择原则、MEPCM的组成及制备策略,着重阐述了不同维度纳米填料对MEPCM热性能的影响,总结了MEPCM在建筑、纺织品及热管理等领域中的应用,最后,展望了纳米填料在合理设计和构建高性能MEPCM方面的未来研究方向和挑战。

     

  • 图  1  喷雾干燥制备MEPCM的示意图[13,29]

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of the mechanism for preparing microcapsules using spray drying[13,29]

    图  2  溶剂蒸发制备MEPCM的步骤[35]

    Figure  2.  Basic steps of microencapsulation by solvent evaporation[35]

    图  3  通过界面聚合形成MEPCM的机理示意图[42]

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram for the formation mechanism of MEPCM via the interfacial polymerization[42].

    图  4  用于PCM封装的原位聚合过程[13]

    Figure  4.  The process of in-situ polymerization for PCM encapsulation[13]

    图  5  悬浮聚合的制备过程[13,45]

    Figure  5.  The fabrication process of suspension polymerization[13, 45]

    图  6  聚合物-SiO2/TiC杂化壳微胶囊的制备工艺示意图[52]

    Figure  6.  Schematic fabrication process of micro-capsules with a polymer-SiO2/TiC hybrid shell[52].

    图  7  复凝聚的过程示意图[54]

    Figure  7.  The process of coacervation[54]

    图  8  溶胶-凝胶法的制备方案[59]

    Figure  8.  Preparation scheme of sol-gel method[59]

    图  9  石蜡@MF/石墨MEPCM的制备原理图 [68]

    Figure  9.  Schematic preparation of the paraffin@MF/graphite MEPCMs [68]

    图  10  有OICNTs 的BCMPCMs的制备过程[74]

    Figure  10.  The fabrication process of BCMPCMs with OICNTs[74]

    图  11  (a) Cu2O-Cu-MWCNTs/石蜡复合材料的合成, (b) Cu2O-Cu-MWCNTs 复合材料的 SEM 图,(c) 纯石蜡、MWCNT/石蜡和 Cu2O-Cu-MWCNT/石蜡复合材料的热导率和温度的关系图;(d) 石蜡和PMMA/BN/TiO2 混合壳的MEPCM的制备示意图,(e) PMMA/BN/TiO2 壳制备的MEPCM的SEM图,(f)纯石蜡和不同BN用量的MEPCM的热导率/TiO2 杂化纳米颗粒[96-97]

    Figure  11.  (a) Synthesis of Cu2O-Cu-MWCNTs/paraffin composites, (b) SEM photographs of Cu2O- Cu-MWCNTs composite, (c) Dependence of the thermal conductivity of pure paraffin, MWC- NTs/paraffin and Cu2O-Cu-MWCNTs/paraffin composites on the temperature, (d) Schematic fabrication of MEPCMs with paraffin core and PMMA/BN/TiO2 hybrid shell, (e) SEM images of MEPCMs prepared with PMMA/BN/TiO2 shell, (f) Thermal conductivity of pure paraffin and MEPCMs with different dosages of BN/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles [96-97].

    图  12  (a) 具有杂化填料(GO和CNT)的MEPCM制备示意图;(b) MEPCM/GO-CNT的SEM 图像;(c) 具有不同填料的MEPCM的热导率[99]

    Figure  12.  (a) Schematic diagrams of MEPCM with GO or CNT, (b) SEM images of MEPCM/GO-CNT, (c) Thermal conductivity of the microcapsules with different fillers[99]

    表  1  不同类型壳体材料的优缺点[15]

    Table  1.   Advantages and disadvantages of different types of shell materials[15]

    Common shell materials Advantages Disadvantages
    Organic shell
    Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin
    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin
    Poly(urea-urethane) (PUU)
    Polyurea (PU)
    Acrylic resins
    Inorganic shell
    Silica(SiO2)
    Titania(TiO2)
    Calcium carbonate(CaCO3)
    Zinc oxide (ZnO)
    Alumina(Al2O3)
    Organic and inorganic hybrid shell
    Silver nanoparticles in organic shell
    Iron nanoparticles in organic shell
    Silicon nitride in organic shell

    Good structure stability
    Superb durability after many thermal cycles
    Excellent UV stability,
    non-toxicity, easily handle,
    exceptional mechanical strength

    Better utilization than organic shell
    Exceptional thermal stability
    High thermal conductivity
    high corrosion resistance, multifunctionality
    good thermal conductivity, low cost

    Outstanding thermal conductivity
    Mechanical strength
    Chemical stability

    Poor chemical and thermal stabilities
    Low thermal conductivity
    Toxicity
    Flammability
    Poor thermal stability

    Low long-term stability
    Brittle
    Easy to fracture leading to the leakage
    High cost
    Easy to fracture leading to the leakage


    Inorganic additives are easy to detach
    from the surface
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  典型壳体材料封装PCM芯材制备的MEPCM性能对比

    Table  2.   Typical shell materials in the preparation of MEPCM

    Shell Type Shell Materials Core Materials Encapsulation Methods Enthalpy (J/g) Encapsulation
    Rate (%)
    Refs.
    Organic shells MF Lauryl alcohol In-situ polymerization 79.5 91.2 [16]
    MUF Paraffins In-situ polymerization 134.3 77.1 [17]
    PU Methyl laurate Interfacial polymerization 136.2 - [18]
    PMMA stearic acid Emulsion polymerization 102 52.2 [19]
    Inorganic shells SiO2 polyethylene glycol In-situ polymerization 130 80 [20]
    TiO2 N-Eicosane Interfacial polymerization 188.27 [21]
    CaCO3 Paraffins Emulsion polymerization 171.9 56.6 [22]
    ZnO/SiO2 N-Docosane Interfacial polymerization 139   [23]
    Organic-Inorganic hybrid MF-SiO2 N-Octadecane Emulsion polymerization 167.1 - [24]
    PMMA-BN/TiO2 Paraffins Emulsion polymerization 124.4 72.1 [25]
    PUA-TiO2 N-Octadecane Interfacial polymerization 181.1 77.3 [26]
    Notes:MUF is the Melamine urea formaldehyde, PMMA is the Polymethylmethacrylate, PUA is the Polyurethane acrylate, BN is the Boron nitride.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  四种化学法的优点和缺点

    Table  3.   Advantages and disadvantages of the four chemical methods

    TechniqueAdvantagesDisadvantages
    In-situ polymerizationHigh encapsulation efficiency; Stable shape; Uniform coatingComplex operation; Harmful for the environment
    Interfacial polymerizationHigh reaction speed; Simple operation; Low permeabilityThe monomer is required to have a high reactivity; Harmful for the environment
    Suspension polymerizationEnvironmentally; friendly; Facile reaction; condition High packaging rateHigh energy; consumption; Expensive; Not used for inorganic PCMs
    Emulsion polymerizationStable; High packaging rate; High preparation efficiency; Environmentally
    friendly
    Complicated; Expensive
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  物理法、化学法及物理-化学法的优点和缺点

    Table  4.   Advantages and disadvantages of physical method, chemical method and physical-chemical method

    Technique Advantages Disadvantages

    Physical method





    Chemical method






    Physical-chemical method

    The preparation process is simple, easy to operate, and the cost is low; no chemical reagents are needed, and it is environmentally friendly.


    The size, shape and wall material of microcapsules can be precisely controlled to improve the stability and performance of the material; the functional modification of the microcapsule wall can be achieved through chemical reactions, expanding the application fields of the material.

    Combining the advantages of physical methods and chemical methods, the shortcomings of each can be overcome to a certain extent; the size control of microcapsules and the functional modification of wall materials can be taken into account during the preparation process.
    The size and shape of microcapsules are difficult to control, which affects the performance stability of the material; it is difficult to achieve functional modification of the microcapsule wall, which limits the application scope of the material.

    The preparation process is complex, requires the use of chemical reagents, and requires high operating techniques; some chemical reagents may cause pollution to the environment and need to be handled with caution.



    The preparation process is relatively complex, requiring comprehensive consideration of physical and chemical factors, and high operational technical requirements; appropriate process conditions need to be carefully selected to ensure the performance stability of microcapsule composite phase change materials.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-11-30
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