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电磁吸波材料的研究现状与发展趋势

王一帆 朱琳 韩露 周兴海 高原 吕丽华

王一帆, 朱琳, 韩露, 等. 电磁吸波材料的研究现状与发展趋势[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-12
引用本文: 王一帆, 朱琳, 韩露, 等. 电磁吸波材料的研究现状与发展趋势[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-12
Yifan WANG, Lin ZHU, Lu HAN, Xinghai ZHOU, Yuan GAO, Lihua LYU. Research status and development trend of electromagnetic absorbing materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: Yifan WANG, Lin ZHU, Lu HAN, Xinghai ZHOU, Yuan GAO, Lihua LYU. Research status and development trend of electromagnetic absorbing materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

电磁吸波材料的研究现状与发展趋势

基金项目: 辽宁省自然科学基金项目(1645749635925) ;天津工业大学先进纺织复合材料教育部重点实验室开放基金(MATC-2021-003)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    周兴海,博士,讲师,目前主要从事功能性纳微米纤维材料的开发与制备 E-mail:zhouxh@dlpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB34

Research status and development trend of electromagnetic absorbing materials

  • 摘要: 随着电子设备在军事、通讯、医疗、交通等领域的广泛应用,电磁干扰和电磁辐射问题日益加剧。电磁吸波材料可以将进入材料内部的电磁波能量转化为热能或其它形式的能量耗散掉,是一种直接有效的电磁污染防控手段。因此,国内外研究学者围绕高性能吸波材料的开发及应用投入了大量研究。本文结合国内外研究现状对电磁吸波材料的吸收理论进行了简要概述,并对吸波材料的分类进行了总结归纳,重点探讨了吸波材料结构设计对电磁波吸收性能提升的作用机制,最后从吸波材料应用的“兼容化、复合化、智能化、环保化”方面对其发展趋势进行了展望,旨在为新型及高性能吸波材料的开发提供研究思路和理论依据。

     

  • 图  1  吸波机理

    Figure  1.  Schematic of absorbing mechanism

    图  2  (a)单层稻壳灰/碳纳米管复合材料的仿真模型、样品图及不同参数下的反射损耗图[39];(b)多层雷达吸波结构的仿真模型、材料截面SEM图及不同混合方式的反射损耗图[47];(c)SiC气凝胶电磁波损耗机理示意图、SEM图及反射损耗图[50]

    Figure  2.  (a) Simulation model,sample image and microwave reflection loss curves of single layer rice husk ash (RHA)/carbon nanotubes(CNTs)[39]; (b)Simulation model, SEM image of cross section and microwave reflection loss curves for the multi-slab hybrid composite[47]; (c) EM wave attenuation mechanism schematic,SEM images and microwave reflection loss curves of the SiC aerogel[50]

    图  3  (a)中空锶铁氧体纳米纤维的形成机理、不同温度下的TEM图及反射损耗图[41];(b)CoFe2O4/多孔碳纳米片复合材料微波吸收机理图、SEM图及不同参数下的三维反射损耗图[43];(c)液态金属和铜(LC)复合微米颗粒微波吸收机理图、SEM图及不同参数下的三维反射损耗图[50]

    Figure  3.  (a)Formation mechanism, TEM images under different temperature and microwave reflection loss curves of the hollow SrFe12O19 nanofibers[41]; (b) Microwave absorption mechanism schematic, SEM images and 3 D reflection loss plots of CoFe2O4@C composite material[43]; (c) Microwave absorption mechanism schematic, SEM images and 3 D reflection loss plots of the LC composite micro-particles[50]

    图  4  吸波材料的结构设计、分类、应用及发展趋势

    Figure  4.  Structural design, classification, application and development trend of absorbing materials

    表  1  吸波材料的分类

    Table  1.   Classification of absorbing materials

    类别代表性材料材料特点
    碳系吸波材料石墨烯、石墨、炭黑、碳纤维、碳纳米管密度低、吸波性能好、可与其它吸波剂复合、可对微观结构进行设计
    铁系吸波材料铁氧体、磁性铁纳米材料吸收效率高、涂层薄、频带宽、比重大
    陶瓷系吸波材料碳化硅、碳化硅复合材料力学性能和热物理性能优良
    导电高分子吸波材料席夫碱类吸波材料、二茂铁类吸波材料、共轭聚合类吸波材料结构多样化、密度低、物理和化学性质独特
    手性吸波材料金属手性微体、螺旋炭纤维、手性导电高聚物吸收效率高、频带宽、可通过调节参数来调节吸波特性
    等离子体吸波材料等离子体具有对电磁波特有的吸收和折射性能
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-01
  • 录用日期:  2022-05-03
  • 修回日期:  2022-04-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-20

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