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智能技术在防/除冰中的应用研究进展

孙浩淼 矫维成 金浩正 李君 贾宇航 郭红缘 白杰 彭建 赫晓东

孙浩淼, 矫维成, 金浩正, 等. 智能技术在防/除冰中的应用研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-17.
引用本文: 孙浩淼, 矫维成, 金浩正, 等. 智能技术在防/除冰中的应用研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-17.
SUN Haomiao, JIAO Weicheng, JIN Haozheng, et al. Research progress on application of smart technology in anti-icing and de-icing[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: SUN Haomiao, JIAO Weicheng, JIN Haozheng, et al. Research progress on application of smart technology in anti-icing and de-icing[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

智能技术在防/除冰中的应用研究进展

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(51872065);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(HIT.DZJJ.2023034)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    矫维成,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为先进树脂基复合材料、防/除冰材料 E-mail: xiaojiao458@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TB381;TB332

Research progress on application of smart technology in anti-icing and de-icing

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.51872065); The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (HIT.DZJJ.2023034)
  • 摘要: 结冰会严重影响交通载具、大型建筑、工业生产等社会生活各方面的安全性和稳定性,造成经济损失甚至危及人身安全,因此开展防/除冰材料与技术的研究具有重要价值。伴随着新装备和新技术的快速发展,具有结冰传感探测、自诊断与控制、外场驱动响应等功能的智能防/除冰技术为解决表面结冰问题提供了新思路。本文首先阐述了空中、陆地和海洋等不同环境下的结冰原理,在总结归纳主被动防/除冰技术优缺点的基础上,结合智能防/除冰技术的特点,介绍了微波谐振传感器、电容式传感器和光纤传感器的结冰探测机制;剖析了智能技术在防/除冰系统中的应用,对电加热法与低界面韧性涂层复合的智能混合防/除冰系统、结冰探测和防/除冰一体化的DBD等离子体致动器以及由形状记忆聚合物组成的动态防/除冰系统进行了详细讨论;并概述了光热驱动响应和温度驱动响应的智能防/除冰涂层。最后对智能技术在防/除冰中的未来研究方向和发展趋势进行了展望。

     

  • 图  1  不同环境下的结冰现象及原理[23-25]

    Figure  1.  The phenomenon and principles of icing in different environments[23-25]

    图  2  智能防/除冰技术的原理

    Figure  2.  The principle of smart anti-/de-icing technology

    图  3  用于探测表面结冰的不同种类传感器

    (a)双分环微波谐振传感器[56]; (b)单分环微波谐振传感器[57]; (c)贴片天线微波传感器[58];(d)具有尖锐带通响应的微波谐振传感器[59]; (e)电容式传感器[60]; (f)光纤传感器[61]

    Figure  3.  Different types of sensors used to detect surface icing

    (a) Double split-ring microwave resonator[56]; (b) Single split-ring microwave resonator[57]; (c) Patch antenna microwave sensor[58]; (d) Microwave resonator with a sharp bandpass response[59]; (e) Capacitive sensor[60]; (f) Optical fiber sensor[61]

    图  4  双分环微波谐振传感器跟踪表征水冷凝、结冰、冰生长及室温解冻全过程[56]

    (a)整个过程中谐振器的频谱响应; 以及谐振响应的各参数(b)谐振振幅, (c)谐振频率和(d)品质因子随时间的变化

    Figure  4.  The double split-ring microwave resonant sensor track and characterize the entire process of water condensation, freezing, ice growth and room temperature thawing[56]

    (a) Spectrum response of the resonator throughout the entire process; and the variation of (b) resonance amplitude, (c) resonance frequency and(d) quality factor over time

    图  5  单分环微波谐振传感器在不同响应过程中谐振振幅随时间的变化[57]

    (a)超疏水表面和未处理表面上的液滴冻结; (b)超疏水表面和未处理表面上的水冷凝和冰生长;(c)加热和室温条件下冰滴的融化

    Figure  5.  The variation of resonant amplitude over time in a single split-ring microwave resonant sensor under different response processes[57]

    (a) Freezing of the water droplet on superhydrophobic and untreated surface; (b) Water condensation and ice growth on superhydrophobic and untreated surface; (c) Melting of the ice droplet under heating and room temperature

    图  6  电容式传感器实时测量在相对湿度分别为(a) 30%; (b) 35%; (c) 44%; (d) 52%和(e) 60%的条件下表面结冰的过程[60]

    Figure  6.  Real time measurement of surface icing by the capacitive sensor for different relative humidity: (a) 30%; (b) 35%; (c) 44%; (d) 52% and (e) 60%[60]

    图  7  光纤波长为(a)1.450 μm、(b)1.529 μm及(c)1.550 μm的锥形光纤传感器在水冷凝、结冰及除冰过程中光传输强度随时间的变化[74]

    Figure  7.  Variation of light transmission over time for the wavelengths of(a) 1.450 μm, (b) 1.529 μm and (c) 1.550 µm of the tapered fiber sensor during the condensation, icing and de-icing processes[74]

    图  8  电加热法与低界面韧性涂层复合的智能混合防/除冰系统[59]

    Figure  8.  Smart hybrid anti-/de-icing system composed of electric heating method and the low-interfacial toughness coating[59]

    图  9  智能混合防/除冰系统中谐振传感器的响应[59]

    (a)有LIT涂层覆盖的和无LIT涂层覆盖的谐振传感器的S21频谱响应; (b)智能混合防/除冰系统的传感器分别对水、粘附冰、分离的冰和基线状态下的响应; (c)谐振振幅和(d)谐振频率在整个结冰/除冰过程中随时间的变化

    Figure  9.  Resonant sensor’s response of the smart hybrid anti-/de-icing system[59]

    (a) The S21 spectrum response of the resonant sensor with and without the LIT coating coverage; (b) The smart hybrid system’s sensor response to water, adhered ice, detached ice and the bare sensor; The variation of (c) resonant amplitude and (d) resonant frequency over time during the icing/de-icing process

    图  10  DBD等离子体致动器除冰过程中(a)电容和电荷随时间的动态变化及(b)对应的实物图[78]

    Figure  10.  (a) The dynamic changes of capacitance and charge over time and (b) corresponding physical images during the de-icing process of DBD plasma actuator[78]

    图  11  外场驱动下可动态防/除冰的形状记忆聚合物

    (a)形状记忆GO/EP复合材料的防/除冰结构示意图[80];(b)近红外光响应下能原位可逆转换表面微观结构的超疏水形状记忆聚合物[82]

    Figure  11.  Shape memory polymer for dynamic anti-/de-icing under external field driving

    (a) Schematic of anti-/de-icing structure based on the shape memory GO/EP composite[80]; (b) The superhydrophobic shape memory polymer that can reversibly convert surface microstructure in situ under near-infrared light response[82]

    图  12  光热驱动响应的智能防/除冰涂层

    (a)Fe3O4/氟化环氧树脂的光热性质和超疏水性[96]; (b)利用沉淀法和逐层喷涂法制备ER/H-ZnO@CuS/PDMS光热超疏水涂层[98]; (c)PCPAS光热超疏水涂层优异的防/除冰性能[101]

    Figure  12.  Smart anti-/de-icing coatings for photothermal driven response

    (a) Photothermal properties and superhydrophobicity of Fe3O4/fluorinated epoxy resin[96]; (b) Preparation of ER/H-ZnO@CuS/PDMS photothermal superhydrophobic coating using precipitation and layer-by-layer spraying method[98]; (c) Excellent anti-/de-icing performance of PCPAS photothermal superhydrophobic coating[101]

    图  13  温度驱动响应的智能防/除冰涂层

    (a)碱腐蚀和机械破坏的SiO2-FPU涂层在高温诱导自修复前后的微观形貌对比图[107];(b)MPCM/PRTV涂层中相变微胶囊吸收和释放潜热增强防/除冰性能[108]

    Figure  13.  Smart anti-/de-icing coatings for temperature driven response

    (a) Comparison of SEM images of SiO2-FPU coatings subjected to alkali etching and mechanical damage before and after high-temperature induced self-healing[107]; (b) Phase change microcapsules in MPCM/PRTV coatings enhancing anti-/de-icing performance by absorbing and releasing latent heat[108]

    表  1  主被动防/除冰技术原理及其优缺点

    Table  1.   The principles, advantages and disadvantages of active and passive anti-/de-icing technologies

    Technologies Principles Advantages Disadvantages
    Active methods Mechanical methods Utilizing external forces such as aerodynamic force, shear stress or vibration, for example, electro-impulse[34], pneumatic impulse[35] and ultrasonic[36]. Mature technology, de-icing thoroughly, and suitable for thicker ice layers. Complex design, additional equipment, low work efficiency and severe surface damage.
    Thermal
    Methods
    Heating the surfaces through Joule heating, electromagnetic energy conversion or compressed air, for example, electric heating[37], microwave heating[38] and hot air[39]. Suitable for large-scale de-icing, with faster speed and less surface damage. High energy consumption, high cost, requiring frequent manual operation and regular maintenance.
    Chemical
    methods
    Using solid or liquid anti-icing agents to inhibit the formation of ice by lowering the freezing point[40]. Good effect, widely used on the ground. High cost and serious environmental pollution.
    Passive methods Superhydrophobic surfaces Contact angle>150°, sliding angle<5°, with low surface energy and micro-nano rough hierarchical structure. Droplets maintain non-wetting in Cassie-Baxter state[41, 42]. Promote rebound and combination of the droplets, prevent heat exchange with the substrate, thus result in excellent anti-icing performance[43]. The freezing of condensate droplets under low temperature and high humidity actually increases the ice adhesion, leading to loss of hydrophobicity. Meanwhile, environmental erosion can damage the structure and chemical composition of surfaces[44].
    Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces The surface is smooth and uniform, the lubricant has high affinity and is water-immiscible. The extremely low contact angle hysteresis can promote the sliding of droplets[45]. Significantly delay the formation and accumulation of ice, resulting in a decrease of 1-2 orders of magnitude in ice adhesion strength[46]. Lubricant finally loses the anti-/de-icing performance due to evaporation, shedding and mechanical wear[47].
    Low-modulus elastomer coatings The stiffness inhomogeneity between the coatings and ice can cause deformation incompatibility, leading to interface cavitation[48]. Coatings can also induce local stress concentration at the interface, leading to crack initiation and propagation[49]. Significantly weaken the ice adhesion strength without damaging the entire interface. After multiple cycles of icing and de-icing, the poor mechanical properties of the coatings seriously limit the durability[50].
    Low-interfacial toughness materials When the interface’s macroscopic length is greater than the cohesive length, de-icing performance is dominated by interfacial toughness rather than interfacial strength[51, 52]. The energy dissipated by creating a unit area of new crack is equivalent to the interfacial toughness. The de-icing force maintain constant. The research is still in initial stage, and the factors affecting properties of LIT materials are not yet clear[53].
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-03-12
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