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超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料烧蚀行为与多物理场数值模拟

闫晓杰 金翔宇 黄鹤 范召林 张幸红 洪长青

闫晓杰, 金翔宇, 黄鹤, 等. 超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料烧蚀行为与多物理场数值模拟[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-14.
引用本文: 闫晓杰, 金翔宇, 黄鹤, 等. 超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料烧蚀行为与多物理场数值模拟[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-14.
YAN Xiaojie, JIN Xiangyu, HUANG He, et al. Ablation behavior and multi-physical field numerical simulation of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: YAN Xiaojie, JIN Xiangyu, HUANG He, et al. Ablation behavior and multi-physical field numerical simulation of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料烧蚀行为与多物理场数值模拟

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(51872066;52032003;U20B2017)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    张幸红,博士,教授,硕士生/博士生导师,研究方向为超高温复合材料与热防护 E-mail: zhangxh@hit.edu.cn

    洪长青,博士,教授,硕士生/博士生导师,研究方向为超轻质烧蚀型复合材料防隔热机理与评价 E-mail: hongcq@hit.edu.cn

Ablation behavior and multi-physical field numerical simulation of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (51872066; 52032003; U20B2017)
  • 摘要: 基于超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料的烧蚀防热机制,建立了包含二氧化硅相变的复合材料烧蚀多物理场模型,预测了超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料的表背面温度、热解度、不同层厚度及孔隙压力分布。数值模拟通过计算获得了表面二氧化硅液态层厚度变化规律,模型预测的温度结果与烧蚀实验中测量结果吻合。根据各项传热模式的热流分析结果可见,对防/隔热机制影响最主要的是热辐射、热阻塞和二氧化硅气化。针对超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料的典型服役工况,采用0.5~2.5 MW/m2之间热流密度作为环境输入参数,研究了不同热流密度条件下超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料的烧蚀行为,结果表明:超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料表面烧蚀后退量随热流密度的增加而增加;热流密度小于1.5 MW/m2时表面液态层厚度随热流密度的增加而增加,热流密度大于1.5 MW/m2时表面液态层厚度基本保持不变。该模型为深入研究超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料的烧蚀机理提供一定的指导。

     

  • 图  1  超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料高温烧蚀示意图

    Figure  1.  High temperature ablation schematic diagram of ultra-light quartz fiber reinforced phenolic composite

    图  2  氧乙炔烧蚀试验示意图:(a)烧蚀试验前;(b)烧蚀试验后

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of oxyacetylene ablation test: (a) Before the ablation test; (b) After the ablation test

    图  3  超轻质石英纤维/酚醛多物理场烧蚀模型边界条件设置:(a)热流边界条件;(b)压力边界条件

    Figure  3.  Boundary condition of a multi-physics field ablation model for lightweight quartz fiber phenolic composite: (a) Heat flux boundary condition; (b) Pressure boundary condition

    图  4  超轻质石英纤维/酚醛复合材料背面4 mm处烧蚀温度曲线

    Figure  4.  Temperature curve at 4 mm on the back of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite

    图  5  超轻质石英纤维/酚醛复合材料烧蚀后试验结果分析:

    (a)烧蚀后材料截面图;(b)表面液态层微观形貌;(c)炭化层微观形貌;(d)热解层微观形貌;(e)原始层微观形貌;(f)炭化层硅元素分布;(g)炭化层氧元素分布;(h)炭化层碳元素分布;(i)炭化层不同元素含量占比

    Figure  5.  Analysis of experimental results after ablation of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite:

    (a) Cross section view of composite after ablation; (b) Microstructure of surface liquid layer; (c) Microstructure of charring layer; (d) Microstructure of pyrolysis layer; (e) Microstructure of virgin layer; (f) Distribution of silicon element in charring layer; (g) Distribution of oxygen element in charring layer; (h) Distribution of carbon element in charring layer; (i) Proportion of different element contents in charring layer

    图  6  超轻质石英纤维/酚醛复合材料在1.5 MW/m2热流密度条件下不同物理量演化规律:

    (a)不同深度温度曲线;(b)不同层分布规律;(c)不同深度热解度分布;(d)不同深度和不同层孔隙压力分布

    Figure  6.  Evolution of different physical quantities in ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite under 1.5 MW/m2:

    (a) Temperature curves at different depths; (b) Different layer distribution patterns; (c) Distribution of pyrolysis degree at different depths; (d) Pore pressure distribution at different depths

    图  7  超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料温度场分布云图

    (加热阶段:(a) 30 s;(b) 60 s;(c) 90 s;冷却阶段:(d) 100 s;(e) 150 s;(f) 200 s)

    Figure  7.  Temperature field distribution of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite

    (Heating stage: (a) 30 s; (b) 60 s; (c) 90 s; Cooling stage: (d) 100 s; (e) 150 s; (f) 200)

    图  8  超轻质石英纤维/酚醛复合材料不同层分布云图

    (加热阶段:(a) 30 s;(b) 60 s;(c) 90 s;冷却阶段:(d) 100 s;(e) 150 s;(f) 200 s)

    Figure  8.  Different layer distribution of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite

    (Heating stage: (a) 30 s; (b) 60 s; (c) 90 s; Cooling stage: (d) 100 s; (e) 150 s; (f) 200)

    图  9  超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料孔隙压力分布云图

    (加热阶段:(a) 30 s;(b) 60 s;(c) 90 s;冷却阶段:(d) 100 s;(e) 150 s;(f) 200 s)

    Figure  9.  Pore pressure distribution of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite

    (Heating stage: (a) 30 s; (b) 60 s; (c) 90 s; Cooling stage: (d) 100 s; (e) 150 s; (f) 200)

    图  10  超轻质石英纤维/酚醛复合材料防/隔热机制中各项热效应等效热流及不同热流密度表背面温度曲线

    Figure  10.  Equivalent heat flux of various thermal effects and temperature curves on the back surface of different heat flux densities in the prevention/insulation mechanism of ultra-lightweight quartz fiber/phenolic composite

    图  11  不同热流密度条件下90 s时刻超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料不同层分层规律(加热时间:90 s):

    (a)0.5 MW/m2;(b)1.0 MW/m2;(c)1.5 MW/m2;(d)2.0 MW/m2;(e)2.5 MW/m2

    Figure  11.  Pattern of different layers of ultra-lightweight quartz /phenolic composite at 90 s under different heat flux density conditions (heating time: 90 s):

    (a) 0.5 MW/m2; (b) 1.0 MW/m2; (c) 1.5 MW/m2; (d) 2.0 MW/m2; (e) 2.5 MW/m2

    表  1  超轻质石英/酚醛复合材料烧蚀后各层厚度实验与模拟结果(mm)

    Table  1.   Experimental and simulation results of the thickness of each layer of ultra-lightweight quartz/phenolic composite material after ablation (mm)

    Different layer Experiment Simulation Difference
    Ablation retreat 1.85 1.10 0.75
    Liquid layer 0.97 0.90 0.07
    Charring layer 12.50 10.03 2.47
    Pyrolysis layer 7.29 8.76 1.47
    Virgin layer 7.39 9.22 2.00
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-01-29
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-13
  • 录用日期:  2024-04-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-06

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