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锂电池用PEO基复合固态电解质的研究进展

陈雪敏 李亚如 任永鹏 潘昆明 金晗 赵帅凯

陈雪敏, 李亚如, 任永鹏, 等. 锂电池用PEO基复合固态电解质的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-15.
引用本文: 陈雪敏, 李亚如, 任永鹏, 等. 锂电池用PEO基复合固态电解质的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-15.
CHEN Xuemin, LI Yaru, REN Yongpeng, et al. Research progress of PEO-based composite solid-state electrolytes for lithium batteries[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: CHEN Xuemin, LI Yaru, REN Yongpeng, et al. Research progress of PEO-based composite solid-state electrolytes for lithium batteries[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

锂电池用PEO基复合固态电解质的研究进展

基金项目: 龙门实验室自由探索项目(LMQYTSKT012);河南省重大科技创新项目(231100220100);河南省科技攻关项目(232102240009);河南科技大学研究生创新基金(2023-S49)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    任永鹏,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为动力电池材料与器件 E-mail: Ren_YP123@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Research progress of PEO-based composite solid-state electrolytes for lithium batteries

Funds: Longmen Laboratory Free Exploration Project (LMQYTSKT012); Major Scientific and Technological Innovation Project in Henan Province (231100220100); Key Technologies R & D Program of Henan Province (232102240009); Graduate Innovation Fund of Henan University of Science and Technology (2023-S49)
  • 摘要: 固态锂离子电池能量密度高、安全性强,是突破电池技术瓶颈的关键,受到了学术界和工业界的广泛关注。固态电解质是固态电池的核心,其中聚氧化乙烯(PEO)基聚合物固态电解质在改善电极界面相容性方面具有优势,是最有潜力的电解质材料之一。本文系统阐述了PEO与无机填料间的协同作用,及其对复合固态电解质的离子传输性和界面相容性的影响机制。首先对PEO基复合固态电解质做出概述,并探讨离子传输相关机制,然后分别综述了PEO-惰性填料和PEO-活性填料复合固态电解质体系的设计、制备、性能及机制,最后,对复合固态聚合物电解质的未来发展和优化设计做出展望。

     

  • 图  1  固态聚合物电解质、无机固态电解质和复合固态聚合物电解质的优缺点比较[10]

    Figure  1.  Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of solid-state polymer electrolytes, inorganic solid-state electrolytes and composite solid-state polymer electrolytes[10]

    图  2  聚氧化乙烯中链内和链间离子输运机制[32]

    Figure  2.  Intra-chain and Inter-chain ion transport mechanism in polyethylene oxide[32]

    图  3  (a) Li+分别在PEO相中、PEO相和PEO/陶瓷界面处、PEO相和陶瓷相以及PEO/陶瓷界面处的传导途径示意图[45];(b) 锂离子在LLZO (5wt%) -PEO (LiTFSI)、LLZO (20wt%) -PEO (LiTFSI) 和LLZO (50wt%) -PEO (LiTFSI)复合电解质中的路径示意图[46];(c) NPs、无序NWs和排列NWs在复合聚合物电解质中的锂离子传导途径[48];(d) 填料、聚合物和锂盐之间的路易斯酸碱相互作用示意图[36]

    Figure  3.  (a) Schematic illustration of the Li+ conduction pathways in the PEO phase,PEO phase and PEO/ceramic interface,PEO phase and ceramic phase and PEO/ceramic interface, respectively[45]; (b) Schematic of Li-ion pathways within LLZO (5wt%)–PEO (LiTFSI), LLZO (20wt%)–PEO (LiTFSI) and LLZO (50wt%)–PEO (LiTFSI) composite electrolytes[46]; (c) Li-ion conduction pathways in composite polymer electrolytes with NPs,random NWs and aligned NWs[48]; (d) Illustration of Lewis acid-base interaction between fillers, polymer, and Li salt[36]

    图  4  (a) 三种不同类型Al2O3与PEO的表面相互作用和Al2O3-PEO CSPEs的电导率图[56];(b) AAO -聚合物复合电解质制备工艺示意图[58];(c) 分别为AAO圆盘中单个纳米通道中聚合物电解质示意图、各组分的离子电导率、界面离子电导率以及AAO-聚合物复合电解质(APCE)界面层厚度[58];(d) 功能化Al2O3 (F- Al2O3)的合成及其制备杂化聚合物电解质(HPE)[59];分散在硅片上PEO薄膜中的颗粒的SEM图像: (e) Al2O3, ( f) F- Al2O3[59]

    Figure  4.  (a) Surface interactions between three diferent type Al2O3 and PEO and conductivity plots of Al2O3-PEO CSPEs[56]; (b) Schematics of fabrication procedures of AAO-polymer composite electrolyte[58]; (c) Schematics of polymer electrolyte in individual nanochannel of the AAO disc, the ionic conductivities of each component, the interface ion conductivities, and the thickness of interfacial layer of AAO-polymer composite electrolyte (APCE), respectively[58]; (d) Synthesis of functionalized Al2O3 (F-Al2O3) and preparation of hybrid polymer electrolyte (HPE) using F-Al2O3[59]; SEM images of the particles dispersed in PEO film on a Si wafer: (e) Al2O3, (f) F- Al2O3[59]

    图  5  (a) PEO链与MUSiO2的原位水解过程及相互作用机制示意图[60];(b) SiO2-Li2SO4-PEO CSPEs的制备工艺示意图以及由Li2SO4衍生的SiO2纤维CSPE实现Li+快速传导的原理图[61];(c) 原位水解制备CSPEs的示意图[62];(d) 不同成分聚合物电解质的离子电导率[65];(e) PEO-LiTFSI电解质和PEO-LiTFSI -3 wt% TiO2@PDA复合电解质的DSC曲线[65];(f) CPEs中缺氧TiO2表面相互作用示意图[66];TiO2样品的XPS光谱(g)和Ti 2 p的高分辨率光谱(h)[67]

    Figure  5.  (a) Schematic figures showing the procedure of in situ hydrolysis and interaction mechanisms among PEO chains and MUSiO2[60]; (b) Schematic diagram of preparation process of SiO2/Li2SO4/PEO CSPEs and schematics of fast Li+ conduction enabled by the Li2SO4-derived SiO2 fibers CSPEs [61];(c) The schematic diagram of CPSEs prepared by in situ hydrolysis[62]; (d) The ionic conductivities of the polymer electrolytes with different compositions[65]; (e) DSC curves of the PEO–LiTFSI electrolyte and PEO–LiTFSI-3 wt% TiO2@PDA composite electrolyte[65]; (f) Schematic illustrations of surface interaction of oxygen-deficient TiO2 in CPEs[66]; XPS survey spectra of the TiO2 sample (g) and high-resolution spectra of the Ti 2 p (h)[67]

    图  6  (a) 锂对称电池中多尺度排列的介孔石榴石Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO)膜与聚合物电解质结合示意图[81];(b) 石榴石-木膜阻抗随温度升高而下降的Nyquist图,插图为测试单元的结构[81];(c) 石榴石木和PEO聚合物电解质在不同温度下的离子电导率对比示意图[81];(d) 以陶瓷石榴石纳米纤维为增强层,锂离子导电聚合物为基体的复合固态电解质示意图[83];(e) 纤维素衍生的CPE的制备工艺示意图[88];(f) 纤维素/陶瓷增强CPE中Li+导电机制示意图[88];(g) PEO|PEO−钙钛矿|PEO复合电解质的表面SEM图像、横截面SEM图像及横截面形貌详细视图[90]

    Figure  6.  (a) Schematic of multi-scale aligned mesoporous garnet Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) membrane incorporated with polymer electrolyte in a lithium symmetric cell[81]; (b) Nyquist plot showing the decrease in the impedance of the garnet-wood membrane with increasing temperature, the inset schematic shows the structure of the testing cell[81]; (c) Comparison of the ionic conductivity of the garnet-wood and PEO based polymer electrolyte at different temperatures[81]; (d) Schematic of the composite solid electrolyte, where ceramic garnet nanofibers function as the reinforcement and lithium-ion conducting polymer functions as the matrix[83]; (e) Schematic illustration of fabrication procedures for the cellulose derived CPE[88]; (f) Schematic of proposed Li+ conducting mechanism in the cellulose/ceramic reinforced CPE[88]; (g) SEM image of the surface, cross-sectional SEM image and detailed view of the cross-section morphology of the PEO|PEO−perovskite|PEO composite electrolyte[90]

    表  1  PEO基复合固态电解质文献报道汇总

    Table  1.   Summary of literature reports on PEO-based composite solid electrolyte

    Polymer matrix lithium salt Filler Ionic Conductivity/( S·cm−1) ESW/(V vs.Li/Li+) tLi+ Ref.
    PEO LiTFSI Al2O3 5.82 ×10−4 (RT) [58]
    PEO LiTFSI Al2O3 9.6 ×10–4 (25℃) 5 0.81 [97]
    PEO LiTFSI SiO2 1.8 ×10–4 (30℃) 5.3 0.42 [62]
    PEO LiClO4 SiO2 1.2 ×10–3 (60℃) >5.5 [98]
    PEO LiClO4 SiO2 1.1 ×10–4 (30℃) >4.8 [99]
    PEO LiClO4 TiO2 1 ×10–5 (30°C) 5 0.3 [100]
    PEO LiTFSI TiO2@PDA 4.36 ×10–4 (55°C) 5 0.19 [65]
    PEO LiTFSI Ti3+-TiO2 1 ×10–4 (30℃) 5.5 0.36 [67]
    PEO LiBF4 ZrO2 4.4 ×10–4 (80℃) 0.68 [72]
    PEO LiCF3SO3 ZrO2 1.38 ×10–4 (RT) [74]
    PEO LiTFSI LLZTO 1.9 ×10–4 (40℃) 5.1 0.67 [101]
    PEO LiTFSI LLZTO 3.03×10–4 (55℃) 4.5 0.117 [102]
    PEO LiTFSI LLZTO 5.6×10–4 (60℃) 4.75 0.46 [103]
    PEO LiTFSI LLZO 5.5×10–4 (30℃) >5.7 0.21 [104]
    PEO LiTFSI LLZO 2.39 ×10–4 (25℃) >5.5 [105]
    PEO LiTFSI LATP 4 ×10–4 (60℃) 4.7 [106]
    PEO LiTFSI LATP 3.61×10–4 (60℃) 4.8 [107]
    PEO LiTFSI LAGP 6.76×10–4 (60℃) 5.3 0.378 [108]
    PEO LiTFSI LAGP 1.6×10–5 (20℃) [109]
    PEO LiTFSI LLTO 2.04×10–4 (25℃) 4.7 [110]
    PEO LiTFSI LLTO 2.3×10–4 (RT) 4.5 [111]
    PEO LiTFSI LLTO 1.8×10–4 (RT) 4.5 0.33 [112]
    PEO LiTFSI LGPS 1.21×10–3 (80℃) 5.7 0.26 [95]
    PEG-PEO LiTFSI LGPS 9.83×10–4 (RT) 0.68 [96]
    Notes: ESW is Electrochemical stability window; tLi+ is Lithium-ion transference number; RT is Room Temperature; PDA is polydopamine; LLZTO is Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12/Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12; LLZO is Li7La3Zr2O12; LATP is Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3; LAGP is Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3; LLTO is Li0.33La0.557TiO3; LGPS is Li10GeP2S12; PEG is Polyethylene glycol.
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-04-01
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