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不同厚度比的SiC陶瓷-纤维增强树脂基复合材料装甲的损伤失效及其抗弹性能

陆文成 武一丁 余毅磊 马铭辉 周玄 高光发

陆文成, 武一丁, 余毅磊, 等. 不同厚度比的SiC陶瓷-纤维增强树脂基复合材料装甲的损伤失效及其抗弹性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-15.
引用本文: 陆文成, 武一丁, 余毅磊, 等. 不同厚度比的SiC陶瓷-纤维增强树脂基复合材料装甲的损伤失效及其抗弹性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-15.
LU Wencheng, WU Yiding, YU Yilei, et al. Damage failure and ballistic performance of SiC ceramic-fiber reinforced resin-based composite armor with different thickness ratios[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: LU Wencheng, WU Yiding, YU Yilei, et al. Damage failure and ballistic performance of SiC ceramic-fiber reinforced resin-based composite armor with different thickness ratios[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

不同厚度比的SiC陶瓷-纤维增强树脂基复合材料装甲的损伤失效及其抗弹性能

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(12172179, U2341244, 11472008, 11802141)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    高光发,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为冲击动力学 E-mail: gfgao@ustc.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Damage failure and ballistic performance of SiC ceramic-fiber reinforced resin-based composite armor with different thickness ratios

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China(12172179, U2341244, 11472008, 11802141)
  • 摘要: 陶瓷-纤维复合靶板是当前轻型防护工程中常用的装甲结构。对于复合装甲的弹道性能国内外学者已经进行了大量的研究,然而对于硬质弹芯和陶瓷-纤维复合靶板作用过程中的破碎特征研究相对较少。弹芯和陶瓷材料的破碎情况对整体复合装甲的防护性能存在较为明显的相关性。本文利用12.7 mm的穿甲燃烧弹正侵彻SiC陶瓷-纤维复合靶板,在保证复合靶板的面密度相近的情况下,设计了三种不同厚度比的Kevlar/SiC-碳纤维增强环氧树脂基复合材料(T300)-超高分子量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)复合靶板。通过观察回收的弹芯和陶瓷-纤维复合靶板的整体破坏形貌,分析了弹芯和纤维层合板的主要损伤模式。同时对回收的弹芯和陶瓷碎块进行多级筛分称重处理,得到了复合靶板在不同厚度比下弹芯和陶瓷的碎块质量分布符合幂律分布规律。实验结果表明:9 mmSiC+4 mmT300+10 mmUHMWPE的厚度组合在三种不同厚度比中的抗侵彻性能最优,将1 mm厚的SiC陶瓷替换成1 mm厚的碳纤维T300在降低质量的同时可以提高复合装甲的防护能力。复合靶板的失效破坏模式包括陶瓷在高速冲击下形成陶瓷锥和径向裂纹。UHMWPE层合板由拉伸波造成的层间分离现象,背部凸起永久塑性变形以及主要为剪切力导致穿孔失效。碳纤维T300层合板损伤形式主要是剪切力导致的十字型脆性断裂,同时伴随冲塞碎块的脱落。弹芯头部主要呈现粉碎性磨蚀破碎,对于较大的弹芯碎块主要是由剪切应力和拉伸应力共同作用下的拉剪失效断裂。陶瓷-纤维复合装甲理想模型是在陶瓷后加入较高刚度的弹性材料同时背板应选择具有高抗拉强度以及良好冲击韧性的材料。

     

  • 图  1  实验装置示意图

    Figure  1.  Diagram of the experimental setup

    图  2  陶瓷-纤维复合靶板结构示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of ceramic-fiber composite target structure

    图  3  UHMWPE层合板的弹孔形貌

    Figure  3.  Morphology of bullet holes in UHMWPE laminates

    图  4  UHMWPE层合板的背部凸起高度

    Figure  4.  Backside protrusion height of UHMWPE laminates

    图  5  不同厚度比结构下弹芯碎块的质量分布以及幂指数k和平均特征尺寸λ的平均值

    Figure  5.  Mass distribution of core fragments and average values of the power exponent k and mean characteristic size λ of core fragments under structures with different thickness ratios

    图  6  试验后弹芯破碎情况

    Figure  6.  Fragmentation status of the core after the experiment

    图  7  弹芯撞击时应力波传播的示意图

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of stress wave propagation during core impact

    图  8  弹芯断口的SEM图像

    Figure  8.  SEM image of the fracture surface of the core

    图  9  不同厚度比结构下陶瓷碎块的质量分布以及幂指数k和平均特征尺寸λ的平均值

    Figure  9.  Mass distribution of ceramic fragments and average values of the power exponent k and mean characteristic size λ of ceramic fragments under structures with different thickness ratios

    图  10  陶瓷的损伤失效图

    Figure  10.  Damage and failure diagram of ceramics

    图  11  陶瓷锥的形成过程图

    Figure  11.  Schematic diagram of the formation process of ceramic cones

    图  12  UHMWPE纤维层合板的失效破坏模式

    Figure  12.  Failure and fracture modes of UHMWPE fiber laminates

    图  13  UHMWPE 层合板位移场

    Figure  13.  Displacement field of UHMWPE laminates

    图  14  T300纤维层合板的失效破坏模式

    Figure  14.  Failure and fracture modes of T300 fiber laminates

    表  1  T12 A和SiC主要力学性能

    Table  1.   Mechanical properties of T12 A and SiC

    Constants T12 A SiC
    Density, (g·cm−3) 7.830 3.196
    Young's modulus, E (GPa) 197 430
    Poisson's ratio, v 0.3 0.22
    Static yield strength, A (GPa) 1.65 -
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  纤维层合板的力学性能

    Table  2.   Mechanical properties of fiber laminates

    Constants Carbon UHMWPE
    Density,(g·cm−3) 1.65 0.97
    Young's modulus-longitudinal
    direction, E11, (GPa)
    33 87.72
    Young's modulus-transverse
    direction, E22, (GPa)
    33 3.21
    Young's modulus-normal
    direction, E33, (GPa)
    6.27 3.21
    Poisson's ratio, v12, (GPa) 0.22 0.2
    Poisson's ratio, v13, (GPa) 0.30 0.2
    Poisson's ratio, v23, (GPa) 0.30 0.2
    Shear modulus, G12, (GPa) 8.77 2.47
    Shear modulus, G31, (GPa) 6.94 2.47
    Shear modulus, G23, (GPa) 6.94 0.6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  实验靶板设计尺寸配置

    Table  3.   Design size configuration of experimental backplane

    Experiment number Thickness of SiC ceramics/mm Configuration of composite backing plate Areal density/
    (kg·m−2)
    Thickness of T300/mm Thickness of UHMWPE/mm
    1# 10 3 10 46.57
    2# 10 3 10 46.57
    3# 9 4 10 45.03
    4# 9 4 10 45.03
    5# 8 5 12 45.41
    6# 8 5 12 45.41
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  超高分子量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)层合板的侵彻深度和变形凸起高度

    Table  4.   Penetration depth and deformation height of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) laminates

    Experiment number Impact velocity/(m·s−1) Penetration depth of UHMWPE/mm Average penetration depth of UHMWPE/mm Protrusion height of UHMWPE /mm Average protrusion height of UHMWPE/mm
    1# 477.4 7.05 12.81 53 48.5
    2# 483.2 18.57 44
    3# 508.8 3.23 3.955 41 44
    4# 492 4.68 47
    5# 491.6 19.61 16.45 41 47.5
    6# 514.6 13.29 54
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  多级筛分后的弹芯碎片质量

    Table  5.   Mass of bullet core fragments after multistage screening

    Experiment number Mass of core fragments/g
    Total >8 mm 4~8 mm 2~4 mm 1~2 mm 0.5~1 mm 0~0.5 mm
    1# 29.85 19.2 4.54 2.45 2.14 0.86 0.66
    2# 29.14 23.24 3.59 0.76 0.9 0.4 0.25
    3# 30.42 16.52 8.47 2.6 1.51 0.71 0.61
    4# 30.89 18.17 5.29 2.65 2.73 1.01 1.04
    5# 29.61 23.95 3.34 0.76 0.85 0.41 0.3
    6# 29.58 21.82 3.79 1.93 0.89 0.60 0.55
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-03-12
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