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铝离子电池电解质的研究进展

雷鑫 程成 孙涛 范红玉 申薛靖 武湛君

雷鑫, 程成, 孙涛, 等. 铝离子电池电解质的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-19.
引用本文: 雷鑫, 程成, 孙涛, 等. 铝离子电池电解质的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-19.
LEI Xin, CHENG Cheng, SUN Tao, et al. Research progress of electrolytes for aluminum ion batteries[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: LEI Xin, CHENG Cheng, SUN Tao, et al. Research progress of electrolytes for aluminum ion batteries[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

铝离子电池电解质的研究进展

基金项目: 青年人才托举工程 (YESS20200084),国家自然科学基金 (12302218); 中国博士后科学基金(2022M721851)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    孙涛,博士,教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为纳米功能材料可控制备、耐极端环境复合材料设计和制备、高性能铝离子电池和关键材料设计和应用开发 E-mail: suntao@jiangnan.edu.cn

    范红玉,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为纳米功能材料 E-mail:fanhy@jiangnan.edu.cn

    武湛君,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为先进复合材料与结构、结构健康监测、智能/纳米材料与结构、铝离子电池与储能结构 E-mail: wuzhj@jiangnan.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TM911.3;TB333

Research progress of electrolytes for aluminum ion batteries

Funds: Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST (YESS20200084); National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.12302218); China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2022M721851)
  • 摘要: 由于社会的快速发展,人们对二次离子电池的要求日益提高。铝离子电池具有成本低、安全性高、循环性能好等优点,是未来替代锂离子电池的理想储能体系。电解质作为电池系统重要组成之一,起到传输离子、连通电路的作用,对电池性能具有直接影响。因此,设计和制备具有良好综合性能的电解质一直是铝离子电池领域的研究热点。本文对目前铝离子电池的液态电解质、无机固态电解质和聚合物电解质的研究现状进行了总结,从成本、电化学窗口、化学稳定性和离子电导率等方面对它们的性能进行了分析,并对未来铝离子电池电解质的发展方向进行了展望。

     

  • 图  1  使用V2O5纳米线阴极和铝阳极:(a) Al(OTF)3溶于体积比为1∶1的PC/THF溶剂的电解质和; (b)摩尔比为1.1∶1的 AlCl3/[EMIM]Cl电解质在0.2 mV·s−1的扫描速率下的循环伏安图[19]

    Figure  1.  Typical cyclic voltammograms of Al-ion battery using V2O5 nano-wire cathode and aluminium anode in (a) 1∶1 v/v of Al(OTF)3 in PC/THF;(b) 1.1∶1 molar ratio of AlCl3 in ([EMIM]Cl) at a sweep rate of 0.2 mV·s−1[19]

    图  2  (a) 世伟洛克型电池中的不同摩尔比(1.1、1.3、1.5 和 1.8)的AlCl3/[EMIM]Cl 离子液体电解质,在电流密度为66 mA·g−1 时 Al/PG 电池的恒电流充放电曲线; (b) 离子液体电解质AlCl3/[EMIM]Cl摩尔比为1.3的拉曼光谱[20]

    Figure  2.  (a) Galvanostatic charge and discharge curves of Al/PG cells at a current density of 66 mA·g−1 in various mole ratios (1.1, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8) of AlCl3/[EMIM]Cl ionic liquid electrolytes in a Swagelok-type cell. (b) Raman spectrum of the ionic liquid electrolyte with a mole ratio of AlCl3/[EMIM]Cl=1.3[20]

    图  3  (a) 苯的含量与离子电导率和离子液体浓度的关系; (b) 含有不同比例苯的离子液的半电池CV曲线; (c)对应于 (b) 图的阳极和阴极电流密度峰值; (d) 阳极电流密度峰值与半电池CV扫描速率的关系[21]

    Figure  3.  (a) Concentration and ionic conductivity according to the addition ratio of benzene in ionic liquid; (b) Half-cell CV according to the addition ratio of benzene; (c) Anodic and cathodic current density peaks corresponding to (b). (d) Relationship between anodic current density peak and scan rate of half-cell CV[21]

    图  4  不同离子液体的电化学窗口和电导率的比较: (a) 循环伏安图; (b) 电导率-温度(d-T)曲线; (c) 离子液体的Arrhenius拟合曲线[24]

    Figure  4.  Comparison of the electrochemical windows and conductivities of different ionic liquids: (a) Cyclic voltammogram; (b) conductivity–temperature (d-T) curves; (c) Arrhenius fitted curves of ionic liquids[24]

    图  5  未处理和处理后铝阳极表面铝沉积/溶解的示意图以及铝箔在0.5 mol/L Al(OTF)3/[BMIM]OTF和AlCl3/[BMIM]Cl=1.1:1中浸泡24小时前后的SEM图像[25]

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of Al deposition/dissolution on surface of untreated and treated Al anode; SEM images of Al foils before and after immersion in 0.5 mol/L Al(OTF)3/[BMIM]OTF and AlCl3/[BMIM]Cl=1.1 for 24 h[25]

    图  6  使用ScienceDirect数据库进行文献检索的发表趋势分析,关键词为“深共晶”以及“深共晶”和“电解质”[31]

    Figure  6.  Publication trend analysis from the literature search using the ScienceDirect database with the keywords ‘‘deep eutectic” and ‘‘deep eutectic” and ‘‘electrolyte”[31]

    图  7  在摩尔比AlCl3/尿素=1.3电解质中,石墨和铝电极的CV测试: (a) 石墨嵌入/脱嵌(扫速为1 mV·s−1),对应的电池主要充放电曲线; (b) 铝沉积和溶解(扫速为0.5 mV·s−1)使用三电极体系; (c) 使用AlCl3/尿素= 1.3电解质在100 mA·g−1(循环20圈)的恒流充放电曲线; (d) 电池充电示意图(Al沉积和阴离子嵌入石墨)[33]

    Figure  7.  CV of graphite and aluminum electrodes in AlCl3/urea=1.3 electrolyte (by mole): (a) Graphite intercalation/deintercalation (1 mV·s−1), with corresponding major battery charge/discharge curve features indicated; (b) Aluminum deposition and stripping (0.5 mV·s−1) using three aluminum electrode set up; (c) Galvanostatic charge/discharge curve using AlCl3/urea =1.3 electrolyte at 100 mA·g−1 (cycle 20); (d) Schematic of battery charging (Al deposition and anion intercalation in graphite)[33]

    图  8  基于AlCl3/Et3NHCl摩尔比为1.5的Al-G电池的电化学性能:(a) 扫速为1 mV·s−1时的循环伏安曲线; (b) 电流密度为5 A·g−1时具有代表性的恒流充放电曲线; (c) 恒流循环30000次(电流密度为5 A·g−1,上/下截止电压为2.54 V/0.7 V) [34]

    Figure  8.  Electrochemical performance of the Al-G battery based on the AlCl3/Et3NHCl electrolyte at mole ratio of 1.5: (a) Cyclic voltammogram (CV) curve at 1 mV·s−1; (b) The representative galvanostatic charge/discharge curve at 5 A·g−1; (c) 30000 cycles of galvanostatic cycling (current density at 5 A·g−1 and 2.54 V/0.7 V upper/lower cut-off voltage[34]

    图  9  25℃下AlCl3/TMAHCl离子电导率与AlCl3/[EMIM]Cl[36]、AlCl3/[BMIM]Cl[37]、AlCl3/TEAHCl和AlCl3-Urea离子电导率的比较[35]

    Figure  9.  Comparison of AlCl3/TMAHCl ionic conductivity with that of AlCl3/[EMIM]Cl[36] AlCl3/[BMIM]Cl[37], AlCl3-TEAHCl, and AlCl3/urea at 25℃[35]

    图  10  不同AlCl3/4-乙基吡啶摩尔比的4-乙基吡啶-AlCl3-IL电解质的拉曼光谱[39]

    Figure  10.  Raman spectra of 4-ethylpyridine - AlCl3-IL electrolytes with different molar ratios of AlCl3/4-ethylpyridine[39]

    图  11  从各轴方向观察Al2(WO4)3晶体结构: a 轴(a),b 轴 (b),c 轴 (c)[43]

    Figure  11.  The Al2(WO4)3 crystal structure viewed from each axis direction: a axis (a), b axis (b), and c axis (c)[43]

    图  12  NASICON 结构示意图[45]

    Figure  12.  Schematic construction of NASICON[45]

    图  13  在600℃时, B2O3添加量(x:wt%)与(Al0.2Zr0.8)20/19Nb(PO4)3材料电导率的关系[47]

    Figure  13.  The B2O3 addition amount (x: wt%) dependence of the electrical conductivity for the B2O3 added (Al0.2Zr0.8)20/19Nb(PO4)3 series at 600℃[47]

    图  14  PTHF环氧树脂交联网络在一系列铝盐负载(O: Al3+比率)上的离子导电性[56]

    Figure  14.  Ion conductivity of PTHF-Epoxy crosslinked networks over a range of aluminum salt loadings (O: Al3+ ratio)[56]

    图  15  不同F:Al比的PVDF基铝导电聚合物: (a) PVDF; (b) FAl-24;(c) FAl-16; (d) FAl-8; (e) FAl-6; (f)FAl-4[57]

    Figure  15.  Photos of PVDF-based Al conductive polymers with various F:Al ratios: (a) PVDF; (b) FAl-24; (c) FAl-16, (d) FAl-8; (e) FAl-6; (f) FAl-4[57]

    图  16  GPEs制备过程[59]

    Figure  16.  Schemes of the preparation process of the GPEs[59]

    图  17  高倍率处理后的固态铝离子电池的循环充放电性能(ic=idc=10 A·g−1)[60]

    Figure  17.  Cyclic charge-discharge performance of solid aluminum-ion batteries after high-flux treatment (ic=idc=10 A·g−1)[60]

    图  18  (a) 基于Et3NHCl 离子液体的AIBs; (b) 基于[EMIM]Cl凝胶电解质的AIBs; (c) 基于Et3NHCl凝胶电解质的AIBs[61]

    Figure  18.  (a) AIBs with Et3NHCl-based IL; (b) AIBs with [EMIM]Cl-based gel electrolyte; (c) AIBs with Et3NHCl-based gel electrolyte[61]

    图  19  Se/CMK-3复合阴极在铝硒电池中的恒流充放电测试。(a) - (c)分别为100,200和500 mA·g−1的充放电曲线。(d) 阴极在不同电流速率下的循环性能[69]

    Figure  19.  Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements of Se/CMK-3 composite cathodes in Al-Se batteries. (a) – (c) Charge/discharge profiles at 100, 200 and 500 mA·g−1, respectively. (d) Cycling performances of the cathodes at different current rates[69]

    表  1  25℃下不同AlCl3与4–乙基吡啶摩尔比配制的电解质的离子电导率、粘度和密度

    Table  1.   Ionic conductivity, viscosity, and density values of 4-ethylpyridine–AlCl3 IL electrolytes with various AlCl3 to 4-ethylpyridine molar ratios measured at 25℃

    AlCl3/4-ethylpyridine
    molar ratio
    Conductivity/
    (mS·cm−1)
    Viscosity/
    (mPa·s)
    Density/
    (g·cm−3)
    1.1 0.71 17.80 1.209
    1.2 0.78 19.62 1.214
    1.3 0.89 22.36 1.216
    1.4 0.91 23.57 1.217
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同温度下铝离子固态电解质离子电导率

    Table  2.   Ion-conductivity of Al-ion solid electrolyte at different temperatures

    Temperature/℃ 24 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
    Al(CF3SO3)3 (AF) 5.5×10−6
    S·cm−1
    6.6×10−6
    S·cm−1
    1.19×10−5
    S·cm−1
    2.79×10−5
    S·cm−1
    1.37×10−4
    S·cm−1
    7.65×10−4
    S·cm−1
    1.43×10−3
    S·cm−1
    1.89×10−3
    S·cm−1
    AlCl3 (ACL) 2.34×10−6
    S·cm−1
    2.38×10−6
    S·cm−1
    3.01×10−6
    S·cm−1
    4.42×10−6
    S·cm−1
    6.70×10−6
    S·cm−1
    1.76×10−5
    S·cm−1
    3.23×10−5
    S·cm−1
    4.95×10−5
    S·cm−1
    Al(NO3)3(ANO) 3.98×10−7
    S·cm−1
    6.16×10−7
    S·cm−1
    9.8×10−7
    S·cm−1
    1.89×10−6
    S·cm−1
    1.90×10−6
    S·cm−1
    4.88×10−5
    S·cm−1
    9.07×10−5
    S·cm−1
    1.88×10−4
    S·cm−1
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-04
  • 修回日期:  2024-01-15
  • 录用日期:  2024-01-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-02

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