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SiC复合吸波材料的研究进展

邢原铭 杨涛 王恩会 刘成 侯新梅

邢原铭, 杨涛, 王恩会, 等. SiC复合吸波材料的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(9): 4880-4892. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230428.001
引用本文: 邢原铭, 杨涛, 王恩会, 等. SiC复合吸波材料的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(9): 4880-4892. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230428.001
XING Yuanming, YANG Tao, WANG Enhui, et al. Research progress of SiC composite microwave absorbing materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(9): 4880-4892. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230428.001
Citation: XING Yuanming, YANG Tao, WANG Enhui, et al. Research progress of SiC composite microwave absorbing materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(9): 4880-4892. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230428.001

SiC复合吸波材料的研究进展

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230428.001
基金项目: 国家杰出青年科学基金(52025041);国家自然科学基金(51902020;51974021;52250091)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    杨涛,博士,特聘教授,博士生导师,研究方向为冶金电化学与无机非金属材料的功能化 E-mail: yangtaoustb@ustb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332;TB34

Research progress of SiC composite microwave absorbing materials

Funds: National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (52025041); National Natural Science Foundation of China (51902020; 51974021; 52250091)
  • 摘要:   目的  吸波材料作为防雷达探测、电磁干扰和电磁污染的有效屏障得到了快速的发展。SiC是一种应用广泛的吸波材料,其具有一定的介电性能和出众的稳定性、耐腐蚀性,但也存在阻抗匹配不佳等缺点。构建SiC基复合吸波材料是提高其吸波性能的重要方法。本文综述了SiC的吸波性能和SiC基复合吸波材料的研究进展,并展望了SiC基复合吸波材料的发展方向。  方法  对SiC及其复合吸波材料的制备与性能进行归纳总结:(1)SiC的吸波性能和提高吸波性能的方法。SiC吸波材料主要依赖于介电损耗,内部缺陷、界面和表面、厚度和温度等因素会影响SiC的吸波性能。为克服SiC材料阻抗匹配不佳、损耗机制单一等不足,常用的方法有:掺杂改性和制备SiC复合材料。(2)SiC复合材料的制备策略:零维SiC纳米颗粒、一维SiC纳米线、三维结构SiC材料分别与导电材料、介电材料和磁性材料相复合,以提高SiC基材料的介电性能、丰富吸收机制、优化阻抗匹配,进而提高吸波性能。  结果  SiC的吸波性能主要来自于介电弛豫损耗,并受到内部缺陷、界面和表面、厚度和温度的影响:SiC内部缺陷作为极化中心引起极化弛豫,提高介电常数;SiC的比表面积增大,会增加偶极极化和界面极化,促进多次反射;吸收体厚度为1/4波长的奇数倍时会产生干涉而衰减电磁波;温度的升高会降低SiC电阻率,进而提高其对电磁波吸收率。为提高SiC的吸波性能,可采用掺杂改性和制备SiC复合材料的  方法  对SiC的掺杂改性可以调控载流子浓度、提高介电性能;SiC复合吸波材料可以调节电磁参数、优化阻抗匹配、丰富损耗机制,提高吸收强度。不同维度的SiC用于吸波材料的优势有:SiC纳米颗粒抗氧化性能更好,更耐高温,纳米颗粒有效改善了SiC的电磁特性且制备方法较为成熟;SiC纳米线具有一维结构,比表面积较大,易于形成三维导电网络,具有较高的介电性能;三维SiC材料可通过不同的实验方法制备,多孔网络结构对电磁波产生反射、散射、干涉作用引起衰减。按照损耗类型分类,SiC复合材料主要分为三类:SiC与导电材料复合、SiC与介电材料复合、SiC与磁性材料复合。①导电材料以碳材料为代表,具有导电性高、密度小、稳定性好、易于调控的优势。导电材料与SiC相复合,促进了异质界面的形成,引入了导电路径,可以丰富损耗机制,优化阻抗匹配。②介电材料包括各种陶瓷材料,大多具有较高的力学性能和耐腐蚀性能。介电材料与SiC相复合,可以调控材料的介电性能,进一步提高介电损耗,并有在高温下服役的潜力。③磁性材料包括金属微粉和金属氧化物等,通过涡流损耗和自然共振等方式进行磁损耗,有些磁性材料也同时具备介电损耗,具有很高的吸波特性。磁性材料与SiC相复合,可以丰富损耗机制,提高吸波性能。  结论  本文综述了SiC复合吸波材料的最新研究进展:介绍了SiC的结构、吸波机理和影响因素,并根据SiC材料维度和损耗机理对复合材料进行分类总结和分析。最后对SiC基复合吸波材料的发展前景进行了展望,这为SiC基复合吸波材料的研究提供参考。

     

  • 图  1  ((a),(b)) SiC原子结构;((c)~(e)) 常见的SiC结构示意图[9]

    Figure  1.  ((a),(b)) Atomic structure of SiC; ((c)-(e)) Schematic diagram of common SiC structure[9]

    图  2  吸波材料的基本机制

    Figure  2.  Basic mechanism of absorbing materials

    图  3  纳米SiC@C复合粒子的TEM图像 (a) 和高倍率TEM图像 (b)[25]

    Figure  3.  TEM images (a) and high magnification TEM images (b) of SiC@C composite nanoparticles[25]

    dSiC(101)—Lattice stripe spacings correspond to the SiC (101) planes

    图  4  退火温度为1650℃ (a) 和1800℃ (b) 时,匹配厚度为2或1.5~4 mm的范围内,退火态硅硼碳氮(SiBCN)的吸波性能和反射系数(RC)[27];(c) 匹配厚度为3 mm的SiOC和n-SiC/SiOC的吸收系数[29]

    Figure  4.  Reflection coefficient (RC) of the as-annealed siliconboron carbonitride (SiBCN) at 1650℃ (a) and 1800℃ (b) as a function of frequency at a matching thickness range of 2 or 1.5-4 mm[27]; (c) Absorption coefficients of SiOC and n-SiC/SiOC with a matching thickness of 3 mm[29]

    图  5  Fe3O4/氧化还原石墨烯(rGO)复合材料 (a) 与SiC/Fe3O4/rGO复合材料 (b) 吸波性能的对比[30]

    Figure  5.  Comparison of absorbing properties of Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (a) and SiC/Fe3O4/rGO (b)[30]

    图  6  (a) 单个竹节状SiC纳米线TEM图像;(b) 竹节处对应的HRTEM图像;(c) 匹配厚度为2.0 mm和2.5 mm时材料的反射损耗(RL)值[33]

    Figure  6.  (a) TEM images of a single nanowire; (b) HRTEM image of bamboo joint region; (c) Reflection loss (RL) values of nanowires-paraffin composite with the matching thickness of 2.0 mm and 2.5 mm[33]

    图  7  SiC纳米线低放大TEM图像 (a)、高放大TEM图像( b);(c)为图(b)中划出区域的HRTEM图像;((d), (e)) 对应(c)中含缺陷1和无缺陷2区的FFT衍射图[37]; SiC 纳米线(NWs) (f) 和SiC@石墨烯 (g) 的SEM图像、SiC NWs (h) 和SiC@石墨烯 (i) 的TEM图像(插图为相应的HRTEM图像);(j) 不同厚度SiC@石墨烯的RL值[42]

    Figure  7.  SiC nanowires low-magnified TEM image (a), high-magnified TEM image (b) showing high-density stacking faults and micro-twins within nanowires; (c) HRTEM image recorded from the white square area in Fig.(b); ((d), (e)) Corresponding the FFT diffraction patterns obtained from defect-containing (1) and defect-free (2) regions in (c), respectively[37]; SEM images of nanowires (NWs) (f) and SiC@graphene (g); TEM images of SiC NWs (h) and SiC@graphene (i) (insets are corresponding HRTEM images); (j) RL values of SiC@graphene with various thicknesses[42]

    TB—Twin boundaries; SF—Stacking faults; VG—Vertically oriented graphene; NW—Nanowire

    图  8  (a) SiC纳米线上珠状SiO2的SEM图像[45];(b) SiC/SiO2核壳纳米线结构和吸波机制图[48]

    Figure  8.  (a) SEM image of beaded SiO2 on SiC nanowires[45]; (b) Structure and wave absorption schematic diagram of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires[48]

    图  9  ((a), (b)) 包埋法制备的BC/SiC复合材料的SEM图像[54];(c) 经1300℃、1400℃、 1500℃热处理的3种样品(S-1300、S-1400、S-1500)的RL三维表征[55]

    Figure  9.  ((a), (b)) SEM images of BC/SiC composites by investing method; (c) Three-dimensional presentations of RL of 3 kinds of samples were heat treated at 1300℃, 1400℃ and 1500℃ (S-1300, S-1400, S-1500)[55]

    图  10  两种不同组分气凝胶的微观结构:(a) SiC/Si3N4复合气凝胶[64];(b) SiC/C复合气凝胶[65]

    Figure  10.  Microstructure of two aerogels with different components: (a) SiC/Si3N4 composite aerogels[64]; (b) SiC/C composite aerogel[65]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-03-01
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-31
  • 录用日期:  2023-04-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-04-28
  • 刊出日期:  2023-09-15

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