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陶瓷基复合材料构件内嵌孔加工工艺研究进展

罗潇 刘小冲 曾雨琪 李坚 徐友良 李龙彪

罗潇, 刘小冲, 曾雨琪, 等. 陶瓷基复合材料构件内嵌孔加工工艺研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-17.
引用本文: 罗潇, 刘小冲, 曾雨琪, 等. 陶瓷基复合材料构件内嵌孔加工工艺研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-17.
LUO Xiao, LIU Xiaochong, ZENG Yuqi, et al. Research progress on machining process of embedded holes in hot-section ceramic-matrix composite components[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: LUO Xiao, LIU Xiaochong, ZENG Yuqi, et al. Research progress on machining process of embedded holes in hot-section ceramic-matrix composite components[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

陶瓷基复合材料构件内嵌孔加工工艺研究进展

基金项目: 中国航发自主创新专项资金(ZZCX-2017-016)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    刘小冲,副研究员,研究方向是:陶瓷基复合材料设计、制备、性能表征,及材料结构健康监测研究 E-mail: liuchong@nwpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Research progress on machining process of embedded holes in hot-section ceramic-matrix composite components

Funds: Independent Innovation Special Fund Project of Aero Engine Corporation of China (ZZCX-2017-016)
  • 摘要: 陶瓷基复合材料是一种典型的难加工材料,除了各向异性的特点外,其硬度仅次于金刚石和立方氮化硼。航空发动机热端部件内嵌孔(气膜孔等)是陶瓷基复合材料部件的基本结构,对陶瓷基复合材料构件制备成型和服役性能的发挥具有重要意义。本文给出了陶瓷基复合材料热端部件内嵌孔的分类,以及用于加工陶瓷基复合材料内嵌孔的方法,包括:常规机械加工方法,超声振动辅助加工方法,激光加工方法等,阐述了上述加工方法的加工原理、工艺特征、工艺参数的选取,以及加工缺陷特征、形成机制等,给出了不同直径、深径比陶瓷基复合材料内嵌孔加工工艺的建议。

     

  • 图  1  GE公司首次实现陶瓷基复合材料(CMCs)转子叶片地面试验

    Figure  1.  Ground test of ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) blade in GE company

    图  2  CFM公司LEAP发动机和CMCs涡轮外环应用情况

    Figure  2.  CMCs turbine shround in LEAP engine developed by CFM company

    图  3  GE9 X发动机采用SiC/SiC部件示意图

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of GE9 X engine with SiC/SiC components

    图  4  SiC/SiC整体涡轮叶盘试飞情况

    Figure  4.  Flight tests of SiC/SiC turbine blisk

    图  5  (a)某CMCs火焰筒部件热管理微孔;(b)CMCs加工出的直通和异形热管理孔

    Figure  5.  (a) Thermal management micro holes of a CMCs flame component; (b) through and shaped thermal management holes machined from CMCs

    图  6  (a)三维针刺;(b)二维叠层;(c) 2.5维编织;(d)三维编织C/SiC复合材料纤维预制体结构[21]

    Figure  6.  (a) 3 D needled-punch; (b) two-dimensional lamination; (c) 2.5-dimensional woven; and (d) three-dimensional braided fiber architectures in C/SiC composites[21]

    图  7  (a)沿轴向纤维磨削;(b)沿横向纤维磨削;(c)沿法向纤维磨削[24]

    Figure  7.  Grinding schematic diagram in fiber (a) longitudinal direction; (b) transverse direction; and (c) normal direction[24]

    图  8  单颗粒切割纤维束的三种模式(a)轴向;(b)横向;(c)法向[26]

    Figure  8.  Three modes of the single-grain cutting into a fiber bundle (a) longitudinal; (b) transverse; and (c) normal[26]

    图  9  (a)平底金刚石;(b)锋利金刚石磨粒划擦2.5维SiC/SiC复合材料表面形貌[28]

    Figure  9.  Topographies of 2.5 D SiC/SiC composite after scribing by (a) flat grit and (b) sharp grit [28]

    图  10  CMCs不同部位处钻头所受径向力示意图[39]

    Figure  10.  Diagram representing radial stress changes with the position in CMCs[39]

    图  11  C/SiC复合材料钻孔和螺旋铣孔的出入口质量(a)钻削入口;(b)钻削出口;(c)螺旋铣削出口[40]

    Figure  11.  Hole quality under helical milling and drilling of C/SiC composite (a) drilling cut-in; (b) drilling cut-out; and (c) helical milling cut-out[40]

    图  12  C/SiC内嵌孔的加工照

    Figure  12.  Processing photos of C/SiC embedded holes

    图  13  不同刀具制孔获得的三维表面粗糙度Sa均值(1-金刚石涂层刀具;2-电镀超硬磨料刀具;3-钎焊金刚石刀具;4-多刃PCD刀具)

    Figure  13.  Mean values of three-dimensional surface roughness Sa obtained by different tools for hole making (1 Diamond-coated Cutting Tools; 2-Electroplated Superhard Abrasive Cutting Tools; 3-Brazed Diamond Cutting Tools; 4-Multiple Cutting PCD Tools)

    图  14  液氮辅助低温加工系统[41]

    Figure  14.  Liquid nitrogen assisted cryogenic processing system[41]

    图  15  液氮辅助加工C/SiC复合材料的效果(a)刀具温度;(b)切削力[41]

    Figure  15.  Effectiveness of liquid nitrogen-assisted machining of C/SiC composites (a) Cutting tool temperature; and (b) Cutting force[41]

    图  16  超声振动辅助铣削过程中切削力示意图[42]

    Figure  16.  Schematic diagram of cutting force during ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling process[42]

    图  17  (a)传统钻孔C/SiC表面形貌(b)旋转超声波加工C/SiC表面形貌[44]

    Figure  17.  (a) Conventional drilling C/SiC surface morphology (b) Rotary ultrasonic machining C/SiC surface morphology[44]

    图  18  飞秒激光加工SiC/SiC复合材料机制[55]

    Figure  18.  Femtosecond laser processing mechanism of SiC/SiC composites[55]

    图  19  SiC/SiC叶片激光加工工艺示意图

    Figure  19.  Schematic diagram of laser machining process of SiC/SiC blade

    图  20  水导激光加工原理示意图[56]

    Figure  20.  Basic principle of the water jet-guided laser technology[56]

    图  21  水导激光加工SiC/SiC复合材料圆孔形貌[57]

    Figure  21.  The circular hole morphology of SiC/SiC composite under water-guided laser processing[57]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-04
  • 修回日期:  2024-02-14
  • 录用日期:  2024-02-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-26

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