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纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔加工技术研究进展

陈冰 徐虎 王健 苏飞

陈冰, 徐虎, 王健, 等. 纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔加工技术研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-25
引用本文: 陈冰, 徐虎, 王健, 等. 纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔加工技术研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-25
Bing CHEN, Hu XU, Jian WANG, Fei SU. Research progress of fiber reinforced composites by grinding technology for hole making[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: Bing CHEN, Hu XU, Jian WANG, Fei SU. Research progress of fiber reinforced composites by grinding technology for hole making[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔加工技术研究进展

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(No.52175401);湖南省研究生科研创新项目(QL20210239)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    陈冰,博士,副教授,博士生导师,研究方向为难加工材料的精密加工及其加工过程的在线监测技术研究 E-mail: chenbing@hnust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Research progress of fiber reinforced composites by grinding technology for hole making

  • 摘要: 纤维增强复合材料具有优良的物理、化学和力学性能,在航空航天、汽车、新能源等高新技术领域应用广泛。相比传统钻铣刀具,磨料工具在纤维增强复合材料制孔时,加工后的分层、毛刺、撕裂及热损伤等缺陷更小,且磨料工具可以稳定加工硬度更高的纤维增强陶瓷基复合材料。首先,本文综述了纤维增强复合材料在磨削制孔过程中的切屑形成、磨削轴向力、磨削温度等磨削加工机制;其次,探讨了近年来国内外在纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔技术中的制孔加工缺陷及其评价方法;然后,分析了纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔质量及其影响因素;此外,综述了纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔刀具及其磨损机制等方面的研究现状;最后,对纤维增强复合材料磨削制孔加工技术研究进行了总结和展望。

     

  • 图  1  磨削制孔加工材料去除过程[16]:(a) 磨料工具磨削制孔;(b) 单颗磨粒划切孔壁;(c) 单颗磨粒划切孔底部

    Figure  1.  Material removal processes for grinding hole making[16]:(a) Abrasive tools grind holes;(b) Single abrasive scratch on the hole wall; (c) Single abrasive scratch on the hole bottom

    图  2  不同工艺下金刚石磨料工具钻削CFRP切屑形貌图[26]:(a) 旋转超声辅助下的切屑;(b) 传统磨削下的切屑

    Figure  2.  Morphologies of diamond abrasive tool drilling chips by different processing technology[26]:(a) Chips by rotary ultrasonic machining; (b) Chips by conventional grinding

    图  3  不同磨料工具的临界轴向力理论模型[5,33]:(a) 套料钻;(b) 套料-麻花钻;(c) 套料-锯钻

    Figure  3.  Theoretical model of critical axial force for different abrasive tools[5,33]:(a) Core drill;(b) Core-center drill;(c) Core-saw drill

    图  4  CFRP磨削加工温度分布[41]

    Figure  4.  Temperature distribution during grinding[41]

    图  5  磨料工具钻削纤维增强复合材料制孔分层机制[27]:(a) 孔入口处分层;(b) 中间层未发生分层;(c) 孔出口处分层

    Figure  5.  Delamination mechanism of hole making in fiber reinforced composites by abrasive tool grinding[27]:(a) Delamination at hole entrance; (b) No delamination at intermiate layer;(c) Delamination at hole exit

    图  6  分层因子示意图:(a)直径分层因子[50];(b)面积分层因子[51]

    Figure  6.  Illustrations of delamination factor: (a) diameter delamination factor[50];(b) area delamination factor[51]

    图  7  C/SiC复合材料制孔的出口撕裂形成机制及损伤形貌[58]:(a)界面脱粘;(b)纤维弯曲;(c)纤维断裂;(d)出孔损伤

    Figure  7.  Exit tearing mechanism and damage morphology of C/SiC composites[58]:(a) Interface debonding;(b) Fiber bending; (c) Fiber fracture;(d) Hole exit damage

    图  8  纤维增强复合材料在不同切削方向的断裂机制[58]

    Figure  8.  Fracture mechanism of fiber composites in different cutting directions[58]

    图  9  孔内壁残余材料的凸起高度[30]

    Figure  9.  Height of the inner surface of the hole[30]

    图  10  C/C-SiC制孔入口和出口表面形貌[71]:(a)、(b)孔入 口处;(c)、(d)孔出口处

    Figure  10.  Surface topographies of the hole entrance and exit drilled[71]:(a)、(b) Hole entrance;(c)、(d) Hole exit

    图  11  主轴转速和进给速度对CFRP钻孔轴向力的影响[74]

    Figure  11.  Effect of spindle speed and feed rate on the thrust and cutting forces[74]

    图  12  不同磨粒粒径金刚石套料钻钻削CFRP出口形貌[17]:(a) 25/30#;(b) 40/45#;(c) 80/100#

    Figure  12.  The exit morphology of CFRP by diamond core drills with different abrasive sizes[17]: (a) 25/30#;(b) 40/45#;(c) 80/100#

    图  13  旋转超声辅助制孔工艺及磨粒运动轨迹[80]:(a)旋转超声辅助制孔工艺;(b)磨粒运动轨迹

    Figure  13.  Illustrations of RUM process and the abrasive trajectories generated with and without ultrasonic[80]: (a) Illustration of RUM process;(b) Abrasive trajectories

    图  14  γ=0°/90° CFRP制孔孔壁形貌图[26]:(a)普通磨削加工;(b)旋转超声辅助磨削加工

    Figure  14.  Morphology of CFRP hole wall after γ=0°/90°[26]:(a) Conventional grinding;(b) Rotary ultrasonic grilling

    图  15  倾斜轨道磨削制孔技术[90]

    Figure  15.  Hole-making technique by title orbital grinding[90]

    图  16  磨料工具种类:(a)烧结型[91];(b)电镀型[73];(c)钎焊型[78]

    Figure  16.  Type of abrasive tools:(a) Sintered[91];(b) Electroplated[73];(c) Brazed[78]

    图  17  电镀金刚石复合刀具:(a)套料-麻花钻[27];(b)套料-锯钻[27];(c)套料-烛心钻[27];(d)钻-扩-绞-锪窝一体化钻头[98]

    Figure  17.  Electroplated diamond composite tool:(a) Step-core-twist drill[27];(b) Step-core-saw drill[27]; (c) Step-core-candlestick drill[27];(d)Integrated drill[98]

    图  18  磨粒磨损特征[31,103]:(a)完整[103];(b)脱落[31];(c)破碎[103];(d)磨耗平台[31]

    Figure  18.  Abrasive wear characteristics[31,103]:(a) Complete[103];(b) Fall off[31];(c) Crushing[103];(d) Abrasive platform[31]

    表  1  磨料工具的临界轴向力表达式[5]

    Table  1.   Critical axial force expression of abrasive tools[5]

    Drill
    type
    Associated expressionCharacteristics thrust force
    Twist
    drill
    ${F_A} = {\text{π}} \sqrt {32{G_{IC} }M} {\text{ = } }{\text{π}} \sqrt {\frac{ {8{G_{IC} }E{ {\text{h} }^3} } }{ {3(1 - {v^2})} } }$The center of the circular plate is loaded
    Core
    drill
    ${F_{\text{c} } } = {\text{π}} \sqrt {\frac{ {32{G_{IC} }M} }{\begin{gathered} 1 - {s^2}\left[ {\left( {2 - 2\beta + \frac{ {3{\beta ^2} } }{2} } \right) + \frac{ {4{ {(1 - \beta )}^2} } }{ {\beta (2 - \beta )} }\ln (1 - \beta )} \right]{s^2} \hfill \\ + \left[ {\frac{ {\left( {2 - 4\beta + 5{\beta ^2} - 3{\beta ^3} + {\beta ^4} } \right)} }{2} + \frac{ {2{ {\left( {1 - \beta } \right)}^2}\left( {2 - 2\beta + {\beta ^2} } \right)} }{ {\beta \left( {2 - \beta } \right)} }\ln \left( {1 - \beta } \right)} \right]{s^4} \hfill \\ \end{gathered} } }$The circular plate is clamped and subjected to annular distributed load
    Core-
    center drill
    ${F_{ {\text{cc} } } } = {\text{π}} \left( {1{\text{ + } }\gamma } \right)\sqrt {\frac{ {32{G_{IC} }M} }{\begin{gathered} 1 - {s^2}\left[ {\left( {2 - 2\beta + \frac{ {3{\beta ^2} } }{2} } \right) + \frac{ {4{ {(1 - \beta )}^2} } }{ {\beta (2 - \beta )} }\ln (1 - \beta )} \right]{s^2} \hfill \\ + \left[ {\frac{ {\left( {2 - 4\beta + 5{\beta ^2} - 3{\beta ^3} + {\beta ^4} } \right)} }{2} + \frac{ {2{ {\left( {1 - \beta } \right)}^2}\left( {2 - 2\beta + {\beta ^2} } \right)} }{ {\beta \left( {2 - \beta } \right)} }\ln \left( {1 - \beta } \right)} \right]{s^4} \hfill \\ \end{gathered} } }$The thrust force can be considered as a concentrated center load plus the annular
    area load.
    Core-

    saw drill
    ${F_{ {\text{cs} } } } = {\text{π}} \left( {1{\text{ + } }\eta } \right)\sqrt {\frac{ {32{G_{IC} }M} }{\begin{gathered} 1 - 2{\left( {1 - \beta - \varphi } \right)^2}{s^2} + {(1 - \beta - \varphi )^4}{s^4} + \hfill \\ \eta \left\{ \begin{gathered} 1 - \left[ {\left( {2 - 2\beta + \frac{ {3{\beta ^2} } }{2} } \right) + \frac{ {4{ {\left( { {\text{1 } -}\beta } \right)}^{\text{2} } } } }{ {\beta \left( { {\text{2 } -}\beta } \right)} }{\text{ln} }\left( {1 - \beta } \right)} \right]{ {\text{s} }^{\text{2} } } + \hfill \\ \left[ {\frac{ {\left( { {\text{2 }-{ 4} }\beta {\text{ + 5} }{\beta ^{\text{2} } } - {\text{3} }{\beta ^{\text{3} } }{\text{ + } }{\beta ^{\text{4} } } } \right)} }{ {\text{2} } }{\text{ + } }\frac{ { {\text{2} }{ {\left( { {\text{1} } - \beta } \right)}^2}\left( {2 - 2\beta + {\beta ^2} } \right)} }{ {\beta \left( {2 - \beta } \right)} }\ln \left( {1 - \beta } \right)} \right]{s^4} \hfill \\ \end{gathered} \right\} \hfill \\ \hfill \\ \end{gathered} } }$The thrust force can be considered as a periphery circular load plus the annular area load.
    Notes:GIC—The critical crack propagation energy per unit area in mode IE—Young’s modulus;h—The uncut depth under tool;v—Poisson’s ratio for the material;β—The ratio between thickness (t) and radius of core drill (c);s—The ratio between the radius of saw drill(c) and the radius of delamination(a);γ、η—The ratio between peripheral circular force and central concentrated force.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  制孔分层评价方法及其特点

    Table  2.   Evaluation methods of delamination and their characteristics

    Delamination

    factor
    Associated expressionMain characteristicsReference
    Fd${F_d} = \dfrac{ { {D_d} } }{ { {D_0} } }$Simple to evaluate, easy to measure[50]
    Fa${F_{\text{a} } } = \dfrac{ { {A_d} } }{ { {A_{nom} } } }$Without considering length of cracks[51]
    Fda${F_{ {\text{da} } } } = {F_d} + \dfrac{ { {A_d} } }{ { {A_{\max } } - {A_{nom} } } }(F_d^2 - {F_{\text{d} } })$Both maximum delamination diameter and area are considered[52]
    Fed${F_{ {\text{ed} } } } = \dfrac{ { {D_{\text{e} } } }}{ { {D_0} } }$,${D_e} = \sqrt {\dfrac{ {4({A_d} + {A_{nom} })} }{\text{π} } }$Without considering maximum delamination diameter and number of micro cracks[53]
    f$f = 4\text{π} \dfrac{ { {A_e} } }{ { {p^2} } }$Not an independent and valid evaluating method[54]
    Fv${F}_{\text{v} }=\dfrac{1}{N}\left({\displaystyle \sum _{\text{i}=1}^{N}\dfrac{ {A}_{\text{d} }^{i} }{ {A}_{N} } }\right)\text{=}\dfrac{1}{N}{\displaystyle \sum _{\text{i}=1}^{N}{F}_{\text{a} }^{i} }$Delamination defects within materials are assessed comprehensively and accurately[55]
    Notes:Dd—Maximum diameter of the delamination area;D0—Nominal diameter of the drilled hole;Ad—Delamination area;Anom—Nominal area of the drilled hole;Amax—Maximum delamination area;Ae—The area of the delamination area around the hole;N—The total number of the delaminated layers;Adi—Delaminated area of the ith layer;Fai—Signifies the 2 D delamination factor of the ith layer.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  磨料工具的种类及特点

    Table  3.   Types and characteristics of abrasive tools

    Types of abrasive toolsSintered toolsElectroplated toolsBrazed ToolsCompound tools
    Structure characteristicHollowHollow, SolidHollow, SolidTools with a certain structure
    Working lifeShortShortLongShort
    Main advantagesEasy to produceHigh quality of hole could be obtainedOrdering abrasive of tools could be designedProcedure of processing hole could be simplified
    Main disadvantagesChip is removed difficultly, and tools is centered difficultlyAbrasives are easy to peel offAbrasive distribution on tools is inhomogeneousComplex to product
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-17
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-19
  • 修回日期:  2022-02-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-29

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