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缠绕张力对干法缠绕复合材料结构残余应力及回弹变形的影响

邓明 曹子荷 王静南 李瑞奇 胡海晓 曹东风 李书欣

邓明, 曹子荷, 王静南, 等. 缠绕张力对干法缠绕复合材料结构残余应力及回弹变形的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(12): 6884-6896. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230310.001
引用本文: 邓明, 曹子荷, 王静南, 等. 缠绕张力对干法缠绕复合材料结构残余应力及回弹变形的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(12): 6884-6896. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230310.001
DENG Ming, CAO Zihe, WANG Jingnan, et al. Investigation on the influence of winding tension on residual stress and spring-in deformation of dry wound composite structure[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(12): 6884-6896. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230310.001
Citation: DENG Ming, CAO Zihe, WANG Jingnan, et al. Investigation on the influence of winding tension on residual stress and spring-in deformation of dry wound composite structure[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(12): 6884-6896. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230310.001

缠绕张力对干法缠绕复合材料结构残余应力及回弹变形的影响

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230310.001
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (52273080);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(WUT2021IVA068;2021III015JC)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    胡海晓,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为复合材料材料-工艺-结构一体化应用 E-mail: yiming9008@126.com

    曹东风,博士,副研究员,硕士生导师,研究方向为先进复合材料计算力学 E-mail: cao_dongf@whut.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Investigation on the influence of winding tension on residual stress and spring-in deformation of dry wound composite structure

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (52273080); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WUT2021IVA068; 2021III015JC)
  • 摘要: 开展纤维缠绕结构缠绕与固化后残余应力评估是开展缠绕工艺优化设计、实现服役前预应力设计的重要前提。本文采用干法缠绕工艺,基于钢芯模和尼龙6(PA6)芯模分别制备了恒定张力(40 N)、内松外紧(20 N-40 N-60 N)和内紧外松(60 N-40 N-20 N)3种不同张力制度的复合材料缠绕圆筒,通过测试切割过程应变释放量与回弹变形对内部残余应力进行对比分析。借助生死单元法,建立了复合材料圆筒的逐层缠绕过程分析模型,模拟缠绕后残余应力分布;并基于CHILE(Tg)本构模型,开展了复合材料圆筒固化过程模拟,预测固化后残余应力及切割后回弹变形。研究表明:固化应力与缠绕张力均对总残余应力产生贡献,但由于固化过程剩余缠绕张力进一步放松,固化后总残余应力水平低于缠绕残余应力与固化应力之和。固化过程不会改变缠绕张力对最终残余应力分布的影响;缠绕张力对总残余应力的影响程度与芯模材质相关,芯模热变形越大,缠绕张力的影响越弱。当采用相同芯模时,内松外紧(20 N-40 N-60 N)张力制度产生的切割回弹角最小,内紧外松(60 N-40 N-20 N)张力制度产生的回弹角最大;当采用相同张力制度时,PA6芯模制备的缠绕圆筒试样切割后回弹角远大于钢芯模制备试样。

     

  • 图  1  基于钢芯模 (a) 和尼龙6(PA6)芯模 (b) 的缠绕圆筒干法制备过程

    Figure  1.  Dry winding process of cylinders made on steel mould (a) and polyamide 6 (PA6) mould (b)

    图  2  缠绕圆筒表面电阻应变片布置方案

    Figure  2.  Locations of strain gages on wound cylinder

    图  3  缠绕圆筒切割前 (a) 和切割后 (b) 示意图

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of wound cylinder before (a) and after (b) cutting

    图  4  半径法计算回弹角示意图

    Figure  4.  Schematic diagram of the spring-in angle calculated by the radius method

    θ—Central angle; Δθ—Spring-in angle; O—Center point of the molding surface before cutting; O’—Center point of specimen forming surface after cutting; r—Radius of the molding surface before cutting; r'—Radius of specimen forming surface after cutting

    图  5  SS58#-12KHF30F预浸料动态差示扫描量热(DSC)测试曲线

    Figure  5.  Dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test curves of SS58#-12KHF30F prepreg

    图  6  SS58#-12KHF30F预浸料旋转流变仪测试曲线

    Figure  6.  Test results of rotary rheometer for SS58#-12KHF30F prepreg

    图  7  中止固化方案中取样时刻

    Figure  7.  Time points of sampling during curing

    图  8  SS58#-12 KHF30 F预浸料瞬态玻璃化转变温度与固化度关系

    Figure  8.  Relationship between transient glass transition temperature and curing degree of SS58#-12 KHF30 F prepreg

    图  9  SS58#-12KHF30F预浸纱的树脂储能模量随温度变化关系

    Figure  9.  Relationship between storage modulus and temperature of resin for SS58#-12KHF30F prepreg yarn

    图  10  SS58#-12 KHF30 F预浸纱完全固化试样的TMA测试数据:(a)横向热变形数据 ;(b)纵向热变形数据

    Figure  10.  TMA test data of SS58#-12 KHF30 F prepreg cured sample: (a) Transverse thermal deformation ratio; (b) Longitudinal thermal deformation ratio

    L—Longitudinal; T—Transverse

    图  11  缠绕-固化过程数值分析流程图

    Figure  11.  Flow chart of numerical analysis of winding-curing process

    FEM—Finite element method

    图  12  钢芯模 (a) 和PA6芯模 (b) 缠绕圆筒有限元分析模型

    Figure  12.  Finite element models of wound cylinder based on steel mould (a) and PA6 mould (b)

    图  13  不同缠绕张力制度下钢芯模缠绕圆筒 (a) 和PA6芯模缠绕圆筒 (b) 缠绕后环向应力分布

    Figure  13.  Distribution of hoop stress after winding of steel mold winding cylinder (a) and PA6 mold winding cylinder (b) under different winding tension regimes

    图  14  固化过程中复合材料层的温度、固化度和弹性模量E33随时间变化的曲线

    Figure  14.  Curves of variation of temperature, curing degree and elastic modulus E33 of composite layer during the curing process

    αgel—Curing degree of gel point

    图  15  不同张力制度的缠绕试样固化-切割过程中环向应变变化模拟结果:(a) S1;(b) S2;(c) S3

    Figure  15.  Simulated hoop strain variations of winding samples made with different tension strategies during curing and cutting process: (a) S1; (b) S2; (c) S3

    图  16  钢芯模 (a) 和PA6芯模 (b) 表面制作圆筒试样固化后内部环向应力分布

    Figure  16.  Variations of hoop stress distribution after curing for winding cylinders made on steel mould (a) and PA6 mould (b)

    sum—Linear superposition results of curing stress of fiber layer under non-tension condition

    图  17  不同缠绕圆筒回弹角的实验值与仿真值

    Figure  17.  Experimental and simulated values of spring-in angle of different winding cylinders

    表  1  不同张力制度的缠绕圆筒每层的缠绕张力

    Table  1.   Winding tension of each layer of the winding cylinder with different tension strategies

    LayersS1/NS2/NS3/N
    1-3402060
    4-6404040
    7-9406020
    Note: S1, S2 and S3—40 N constant tension, the variable tension from 20 N to 60 N and the variable tension from 60 N to 20 N.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  钢芯模和PA6芯模制备的不同张力制度缠绕圆筒内外表面应变变化

    Table  2.   Changes of inner and outer surface strain of the cylinder wound with different tension strategies on steel mould and PA6 mould

    Winding tensionMouldRouter/10−6Rinner/10−6
    S1 Steel 272±8 −276±4
    PA6 1367±7 −1332±9
    S2 Steel 127±5 −123±2
    PA6 1178±10 −1225±9
    S3 Steel 451±4 −440±5
    PA6 1452±9 −1481±6
    Notes: Router—Average value of the strain for strain gauges R1, R2 and R3; Rinner—Average value for strain gauges R4, R5 and R6.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  钢芯模和PA6芯模制备的不同张力制度缠绕圆筒回弹角

    Table  3.   Spring-in angle of the cylinders wound with different tension strategies on steel mould and PA6 mould

    Winding tensionMouldSpring-in angle/(°)
    S1Steel 6.23±0.1
    PA625.45±0.2
    S2Steel 2.43±0.1
    PA622.65±0.2
    S3Steel 8.58±0.2
    PA628.39±0.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  SS58#-12 KHF30 F预浸纱热膨胀系数和参数

    Table  4.   Thermal expansion coefficients and parameters of SS58#-12 KHF30 F prepreg yarn

    ParameterValue
    T1/℃−30
    T2/℃−25
    $ \alpha _{{\text{EXP1}}}^{\text{T}} $/℃−126.91×10−6
    $ \alpha _{{\text{EXP2}}}^{\text{T}} $/℃−172.01×10−6
    $ \alpha _{{\text{EXP1}}}^{\text{L}} $/℃−1−0.8×10−6
    $ \alpha _{{\text{EXP2}}}^{\text{L}} $/℃−1−0.33×10−6
    Notes: T1 and T2—Fitting parameters of temperature; $ \alpha _{{\text{EXP1}}}^{\text{T}} $and$ \alpha _{{\text{EXP2}}}^{\text{T}} $—Transverse coefficients of thermal expansion on glassy state and rubbery state; $ \alpha _{{\text{EXP1}}}^{\text{L}} $ and $ \alpha _{{\text{EXP2}}}^{\text{L}} $—Longitudinal coefficients of thermal expansion on glassy state and rubbery state.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同缠绕张力对应的纤维方向等效应力

    Table  5.   Equivalent longitudional stress of different winding tensions

    b/mm h/mmF/NS11/MPa
    4.50.162027.78
    4055.55
    6083.33
    Notes: b —Bandwidth of prepreg yarn; h—Thickness of prepreg yarn; F—Winding tension in prepreg yarn; S11—Stress in the fiber direction.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  SS58#-12KHF30F预浸纱用T700级碳纤维的力学性能参数

    Table  6.   Mechanical properties of T700 grade carbon fiber for SS58#-12KHF30F prepreg yarn

    ParameterValue
    E1f /GPa232
    E2f =E3f /GPa15
    v12f =v13f0.28
    v23f0.49
    G12f =G13f /GPa24
    G23f/GPa5.03
    Notes: Subscrips of 1,2,3 are three directions of material coordinate; E—Elastic modulus; v—Poisson's ratio; G—Shear modulus.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  芯模材料参数

    Table  7.   Material parameters of mandrels

    ParameterSteelPA6
    E/MPa2100002320
    v0.330.34
    αEXP/10−6 K−1(20℃-60℃)1290.41
    αEXP/10−6 K−1(60℃-120℃)12156.7
    Note: αEXP—Coefficient of thermal expansion.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  不同缠绕圆筒在切割过程内、外表面应变变化的实验值与仿真值

    Table  8.   Experimental and simulated values of the cutting-released strains on the inner and outer surfaces of the different winding cylinders

    Tension strategyMouldRouterRinner
    Experimental
    value/10−6
    Simulated
    value/10−6
    Error/%Experimental
    value/10−6
    Simulated
    value/10−6
    Error/%
    S1 Steel 272 245 −9.93 −276 −259 −6.16
    PA6 1367 1210 −11.49 −1332 −1218 −8.56
    S2 Steel 127 116 −8.67 −123 −119 −3.25
    PA6 1178 1070 −9.17 −1225 −1075 −12.24
    S3 Steel 451 405 −10.20 −440 −411 −6.59
    PA6 1452 1327 −8.60 −1481 −1335 −9.86
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-01-30
  • 修回日期:  2023-02-24
  • 录用日期:  2023-03-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-03-13
  • 刊出日期:  2023-12-01

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