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碳纤维复合材料损伤的超声检测与成像方法研究进展

杨红娟 杨正岩 杨雷 单一男 林奎旭 武湛君

杨红娟, 杨正岩, 杨雷, 等. 碳纤维复合材料损伤的超声检测与成像方法研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(8): 4297-4319 doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230318.001
引用本文: 杨红娟, 杨正岩, 杨雷, 等. 碳纤维复合材料损伤的超声检测与成像方法研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(8): 4297-4319 doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230318.001
YANG Hongjuan, YANG Zhengyan, YANG Lei, SHAN Yinan, LIN Kuixu, WU Zhanjun. Progress in ultrasonic testing and imaging method for damage of carbon fiber composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(8): 4297-4319. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230318.001
Citation: YANG Hongjuan, YANG Zhengyan, YANG Lei, SHAN Yinan, LIN Kuixu, WU Zhanjun. Progress in ultrasonic testing and imaging method for damage of carbon fiber composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(8): 4297-4319. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230318.001

碳纤维复合材料损伤的超声检测与成像方法研究进展

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230318.001
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0702800;2022YFB3402500);国家自然科学基金(12102075)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    武湛君,博士,教授,研究方向为复合材料与结构、结构健康监测、智能/纳米材料与结构 E-mail: wuzhj@dlut.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB553; TB332; TB551; TB552

Progress in ultrasonic testing and imaging method for damage of carbon fiber composites

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFA0702800; 2022YFB3402500); National Natural Science Foundation of China (12102075)
  • 摘要:   目的  碳纤维复合材料具有密度小、弹性高和韧性好等特点,被广泛应用于航空航天和汽车工业等领域。由于碳纤维复合材料制作工艺的复杂性和不稳定性以及服役期间易受环境的影响,易产生分层、孔隙、纤维褶皱等各种类型的损伤。因此,为了防止重大事故的发生,亟需在碳纤维复合材料制造加工和服役阶段及时检测出损伤,以实现碳纤维复合材料的质量控制和安全性能评估。  方法  针对碳纤维复合材料结构无损检测技术有很多, 如X射线检测法、涡流检测法、磁粉检测法、激光散斑干涉法、红外热成像法和超声无损检测法等。其中,超声无损检测技术因具有技术成熟、检测成本低、准确度高等优势,被广泛应用于碳纤维复合材料的检测。本文介绍了基于体波或导波的C扫描、相控阵、空气耦合、激光超声、光纤超声检测技术的原理、特点以及用于碳纤维复合材料损伤检测的研究现状。本文综述了最具有代表性的损伤诊断成像算法,包括全聚焦成像、三维可视化成像、层析成像、逆时偏移成像和概率成像方法。  结果  基于体波的检测技术能够实现碳纤维复合材料厚度方向上微小损伤的检测,现有研究检测碳纤维复合材料的样品厚度的范围约为3~6.4 mm,在检测频率为20 MHz时,能够检测到的碳纤维复合材料最小损伤直径约为 0.5 mm。基于导波的检测技术,检测的样品厚度范围一般为2.54~4 mm的碳纤维复合材料层合板,该技术具有检测范围广和检测效率高等优势,能够检测最小损伤直径约为3 mm。成像结果表明五种成像方法能够有效地实现碳纤维复合材料各种类型的损伤形貌图像。然而,这五种成像方法的可靠性都依赖于碳纤维复合材料传播模型的建立和换能器的设计与布局,因此,在实际工业损伤检测诊断成像前,应准确测量各检测样品的各层厚度、弹性常数、密度以及检测换能器的参数等。根据实际损伤诊断需求,选择相应的成像方法。  结论  超声检测技术是一种可靠的无损检测/结构健康监测手段,在碳纤维复合材料损伤检测领域具有广泛的应用前景。可有效地解决碳纤维复合材料的各种损伤类型的检测,具有操作简单、高效、成本低、检测精度高等特点。总结并对比了超声检测技术结合体波或导波检测的特点以及用于碳纤维复合材料损伤检测的研究现状。各超声检测与成像方法有不同的优缺点,应根据实际检测需求,选择合适的成像方法。从建立复杂构件的碳纤维复合材料层合板的阵列声场模型、优化损伤成像算法、构建智能/高效/实时化的结构健康监测成像系统、建立损伤定量评估标准、结合机器学习和数字孪生技术实施损伤诊断评估和寿命预测等方面进行了展望。

     

  • 图  1  碳纤维复合材料常见损伤[4-5]

    Figure  1.  Common damage in carbon fiber composite materials[4-5]

    图  2  损伤检测与成像的主要环节

    Figure  2.  Main links of damage detection and imaging

    图  3  基于体波检测的碳纤维复合材料各向同性声学模型

    Figure  3.  Isotropic acoustic model for carbon fiber composites based on body wave detection

    图  4  均质化声学模型示意图(a)[6]和速度分布曲线(b)[7]

    Figure  4.  Schematic diagram of the homogenization acoustic model (a)[6] and velocity distribution curve (b)[7]

    图  5  基于体波的碳纤维复合材料各向异性声学模型

    Figure  5.  Anisotropic acoustic model for carbon fiber composites based on body wave

    图  6  基于导波的碳纤维复合材料各向异性声学模型[13]

    Figure  6.  Anisotropic acoustic model for carbon fiber composites based on guided wave[13]

    图  7  B扫描和C扫描检测技术

    Figure  7.  B-scan and C-scan detection technology

    图  8  超声C扫描检测系统[24]

    Figure  8.  Ultrasonic C-scan detection system[24]

    图  9  检测复合材料中的冲击损伤:(a)超声波C扫描技术;(b) X射线技术[44]

    Figure  9.  Detection of impact damage in composites: (a) Ultrasonic C-scan technology; (b) X-ray technology[44]

    图  10  激光超声检测复合材料的结果[46]

    Figure  10.  Results of the composite by the laser ultrasound[46]

    图  11  光纤超声检测系统示意图[88]

    Figure  11.  Schematic diagram of optical fiber ultrasonic testing system[88]

    图  12  碳纤维复合材料中褶皱损伤的TFM成像[32]

    Figure  12.  TFM imaging of wrinkle defects in carbon fiber composites[32]

    图  13  碳纤维复合材料损伤的三维可视化成像[110]

    Figure  13.  Three-dimensional visualization imaging of carbon fiber composite damage[110]

    图  14  三维相控阵扫描示意图[113]

    Figure  14.  Schematic image of a scanning of 3D phased arrays[113]

    图  15  碳纤维复合材料的损伤层析成像结果[118]

    Figure  15.  Tomography results of damage in carbon fibre composites[118]

    图  16  碳纤维复合材料不同形状的损伤概率成像结果[137]

    Figure  16.  Probability imaging results of damage in carbon fiber composites with different shapes[137]

    表  1  检测碳纤维复合材料的线性换能器阵列参数

    Table  1.   Linear transducer array parameters for carbon fiber composites

    Element pitch/
    mm
    Number of elementCentre frequency/
    MHz
    Ref.
    0.6 64 5 [7]
    0.75 64 2.25 [7]
    1.4 32 2.25 [27]
    1 64 5 [28]
    0.63 64 5 [29]
    0.6 16 7 [30]
    1.0 32 5 [31]
    0.3 128 10 [32]
    0.6 32 5 [33-34]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  用于碳纤维复合材料损伤的检测技术的比较

    Table  2.   Comparison of damage detection techniques for carbon fiber composites

    Detection techniqueWave typeDamage typeFeature
    C-scanBody waveHole[25], delamination[37], impact damage[42],
    debonding defect[43]
    Intuitive display and high detection efficiency
    Phased arrayBody waveDelamination[30, 35, 51], fiber wrinkle defect[32]Acoustic beam focusing, high detection accuracy, high detection sensitivity
    Guided waveDelamination[90], drill hole[59], multiple surface damage[63]
    Air-coupledBody waveDelamination[40], square hole[41], impact damage[42], debonding defect[43]Contactless, no coupling agent, no effect on material properties
    Guided waveCircular defect[69]
    Laser ultrasonicBody waveCircular defect[46], delamination[45]Long-distance, contactless, high-resolution, wide-range detection
    Guided waveImpact damage[70]
    Optical fiber ultrasonicGuided waveImpact damage[88]Anti-electromagnetic interference, corrosion resistant
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  三维图像重构的两种数据采集方式的优劣

    Table  3.   Advantages and disadvantages of two data acquisition methods for 3D image reconstruction

    Data acquisition methodAdvantageDisadvantage
    1D linear arrayLow costComplex detection process and slow detection speed[111], low resolution[112]
    2D arrayFast detection speed, high imaging spatial resolution[111]High cost, complex acoustic beam control algorithm
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  5种成像方法用于碳纤维复合材料损伤的优劣

    Table  4.   Advantages and disadvantages of five imaging methods for carbon fiber composite damage

    Imaging methodWave typeAdvantageDisadvantageApplication
    Total focus methodBody waveSimple algorithmArtifactsHole[51], fiber wrinkle defect[32]
    3D visualization imagingBody wave3D damage imageLarge amount of data, complex processImpact damage[110]
    TomographyGuided waveNo media prior
    knowledge required
    Large amount of calculationDelamination[116]
    Reverse time migrationGuided waveHigh accuracyLarge amount of calculation and storage spaceDamage of thin plate of complex structure[133-134]
    Probability-based
    diagnostic imaging
    Guided waveNo media prior
    knowledge required
    Vulnerable to environmental impactDebonding damage[142-143]
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-07
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-08
  • 录用日期:  2023-03-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-03-20
  • 刊出日期:  2023-08-15

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