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碳纤维-碳纳米管多尺度增强聚四氟乙烯复合材料摩擦学性能研究

汤皓 徐颖 程先华

汤皓, 徐颖, 程先华. 碳纤维-碳纳米管多尺度增强聚四氟乙烯复合材料摩擦学性能研究[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-13
引用本文: 汤皓, 徐颖, 程先华. 碳纤维-碳纳米管多尺度增强聚四氟乙烯复合材料摩擦学性能研究[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-13
Hao TANG, Ying XU, Xianhua CHENG. Tribological performance study of carbon fibre-carbon nanotube multiscale reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: Hao TANG, Ying XU, Xianhua CHENG. Tribological performance study of carbon fibre-carbon nanotube multiscale reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

碳纤维-碳纳米管多尺度增强聚四氟乙烯复合材料摩擦学性能研究

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (51975359)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    程先华,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为纳米表面工程及摩擦学  E-mail: xhcheng@sjtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Tribological performance study of carbon fibre-carbon nanotube multiscale reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene composites

  • 摘要: 针对传统化学法易损伤纤维、污染严重的缺点,采用稀土LaCl3表面处理方法合成碳纤维(Carbon Fibre, CF)-碳纳米管(Carbon Nanotube, CNT)微纳多尺度增强体,通过烧结工艺制备CF-CNT多尺度增强聚四氟乙烯(Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE)基复合材料。对增强体形貌、表面微晶结构以及复合材料硬度、晶体结构、浸润性等进行了表征,揭示了CF-CNT多尺度增强体对PTFE基复合材料结晶度、表面能的影响机制,在不同往复摩擦学试验参数下测试了复合材料的摩擦系数与磨损率,对摩擦过程各个阶段进行细致分析并提出了相应的摩擦磨损机制,结果表明:稀土LaCl3表面处理方法相对传统方法具有不损伤纤维、无毒害的工艺优势;多尺度增强PTFE基复合材料磨损率降低了75.3%,优于同类研究;CF-CNT多尺度增强复合材料较小的表面能降低了起始摩擦系数;多尺度结构及La(III)提高了CF-CNT增强体与PTFE基体的界面结合性能,使材料在摩擦过程中不易产生大块硬质磨粒,并形成强度与稳定性较高的转移膜;复合材料摩擦学行为受往复频率及载荷影响显著,而且在高往复频率及低载荷下磨损率较低。本研究采用稀土LaCl3表面处理方法合成CF-CNT多尺度增强体并将其用于提高聚四氟乙烯复合材料摩擦学性能,所得结论为高性能树脂基复合材料的设计提供了参考。

     

  • 图  1  超声30 min所得浓度为1.0 g/L的分散系静置不同时刻的沉降结果对比图:碳纳米管(CNT)-乙醇分散系静置1 h (a)及24 h (b),RCNT-乙醇分散系静置1 h (c)及24 h (d)

    Figure  1.  Comparison of the sedimentation results of the dispersion system with a concentration of 1.0 g/L obtained by ultrasonicating for 30 min at different times: Carbon nanotube (CNT)-ethanol dispersion system kept still for 1 h (a) and 24 h (b), RCNT-ethanol dispersion system kept still for 1 h (c) and 24 h (d)

    图  2  (a, b) RCF-RCNT多尺度增强体形貌;(c) CF、RCF、RCF-RCNT的拉曼光谱

    Figure  2.  (a, b) Morphology of RCF-RCNT multiscale reinforcer; (c) Raman spectra of CF, RCF and RCF-RCNT.

    图  3  不同复合材料的X射线衍射光谱及结晶度$ {X}_{\mathrm{c}} $(a)及2θ=16° (b),18.14° (c)处的放大图

    Figure  3.  XRD pattern and crystallinity $ {X}_{\mathrm{c}} $ of different composites (a) and enlarged view at 2θ=16° (b) and 18.14° (c)

    图  4  不同复合材料的表面能

    Figure  4.  Surface energy of different composites

    图  5  不同复合材料的摩擦系数实时变化曲线图:(a) 2 min前(放大图);(b) 2 min后(往复频率6 Hz,载荷16 N)

    Figure  5.  Real-time coefficient of friction curve of different composites: (a) magnified view before 2 min; (b) after 2 min (reciprocating frequency: 6 Hz, load: 16 N)

    图  6  不同复合材料的摩擦系数及磨损率

    Figure  6.  Coefficient of friction and wear rate of different composites

    图  7  复合材料磨损面典型形貌:(a~c) PTFE, (d~f) CF/PTFE, (g~i) RCF/PTFE, (j~l) CF-CNT/PTFE, (m~o) RCF-RCNT/PTFE

    Figure  7.  Typical worn surface morphology of composites: (a~c) PTFE, (d~f) CF/PTFE, (g~i) RCF/PTFE, (j~l) CF-CNT/PTFE, (m~o) RCF-RCNT/PTFE

    图  8  复合材料对磨球典型表面形貌:(a) PTFE, (b) CF/PTFE, (c) RCF/PTFE, (d) CF-CNT/PTFE, (e) RCF-RCNT/PTFE

    Figure  8.  Typical GCr15 ball surface morphology of (a) PTFE, (b) CF/PTFE, (c) RCF/PTFE, (d) CF-CNT/PTFE, (e) RCF-RCNT/PTFE after tribological test

    图  9  不同复合材料摩擦过程各阶段及其摩擦磨损机制简图

    Figure  9.  Diagram of the proposed friction and wear stage and corresponding mechanism of different composites

    图  10  复合材料磨粒脱落过程简图:(a) CF/PTFE, (b) CF-CNT/PTFE, (c) RCF/PTFE, (d) RCF-RCNT/PTFE

    Figure  10.  Schematic illustration of the wear debris generation process of CF/PTFE (a), CF-CNT/PTFE (b), RCF/PTFE (c), RCF-RCNT/PTFE (d) composites

    图  11  不同载荷下的RCF-RCNT/PTFE复合材料摩擦系数、摩擦力、磨损率及磨损量

    Figure  11.  Coefficient of friction, frictional force, wear rate and wear loss of RCF-RCNT/PTFE composites under different load

    图  12  不同往复频率下的RCF-RCNT/PTFE复合材料摩擦系数、磨损率及磨损量

    Figure  12.  Coefficient of friction, wear rate and wear loss of RCF-RCNT/PTFE composites under different reciprocating frequency

    图  13  往复频率为6 Hz (a)、10 Hz (b),载荷为16 N时RCF-RCNT/PTFE复合材料摩擦学试验中的GCr15对磨球典型形貌

    Figure  13.  Typical worn surface morphology of GCr15 grinding ball after the tribological test of RCF-RCNT/Ep under 16 N and 6 Hz (a), 10 Hz (b)

    表  1  不同复合材料的硬度

    Table  1.   Hardness of different composites

    SampleHardness (Shore D)
    PTFE57.0±2.9
    CF/PTFE61.7±1.5
    RCF/PTFE62.3±0.6
    CF-CNT/PTFE61.3±1.4
    RCF-RCNT/PTFE62.7±0.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同复合材料的接触角

    Table  2.   Contact angle of different composites

    SampleContact angle/(°)
    WaterDiiodomethane
    PTFE109.0±4.478.1±5.9
    CF/PTFE120.8±0.576.4±1.8
    RCF/PTFE118.4±2.979.0±1.3
    CF-CNT/PTFE119.1±2.575.8±2.1
    RCF-RCNT/PTFE110.2±4.478.4±0.6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  所用液相的表面能

    Table  3.   Surface tension of the used test liquid

    Wetting
    liquids
    Surface
    tension
    $ {\gamma }_{l} $/(mJ·m−2)
    Dispersion component
    $ {\gamma }_{l}^{d} $/(mJ·m−2)
    Polar
    component
    $ {\gamma }_{l}^{p} $/(mJ·m−2)
    Water72.821.851.0
    Diiodomethane50.848.52.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  相关研究中PTFE基复合材料摩擦学性能对比

    Table  4.   Tribological performance comparison of PTFE based composites in similar studies

    Ref.CompositesType of frictionTest conditionsWear rate
    /
    (×10−6 mm3·N−1·m−1)
    Decrement of
    wear rate/%
    [41] PTFE Reciprocating sliding Counterface: φ=10 mm steel ball,
    load: 10 N, frequency: 10 Hz
    304.8 −48.1
    30vol.% h-BN/AO/PTFE 158.2
    [42] PTFE/AP Reciprocating sliding Counterface: φ=9 mm Si3N4 ball,
    load: 10 N, frequency: 1 Hz
    3.2 −44.1
    6wt.% modified CF/PTFE/AP 1.79
    [43] PTFE Reciprocating sliding Counterface: φ=5 mm Si3N4 ball,
    load: 3 N, frequency: 2 Hz
    2.5 −44.0
    5wt.% CF/5wt.%BP/PTFE 1.4
    [2] PTFE Continuous sliding Counterface: φ=6 mm steel ball,
    load: 10 N,
    rotational speed: 200 r/min
    390 −29.7
    20wt.%CF/PTFE 274
    [1] PTFE Reciprocating sliding Counterface: 5×5×25 mm steel pin,
    load: 50 N, frequency: 2 Hz
    0.21
    15wt.% AF/PTFE 0.23 +9.5
    15wt.% CF/PTFE 0.24 +14.3
    15wt.% GF/PTFE 0.18 −14.3
    0.5wt.% BF/PTFE 0.15 −28.6
    0.5wt.% BF+
    10wt.%MoS2/PTFE
    0.17 −19.1
    [20] PI Reciprocating sliding Counterface: φ=4 mm steel ball,
    load: 4.5 N, velocity: 0.083 m/s
    6.44 −72.2
    5wt.% CF-CNT reinforcer/PI 1.79
    This study PTFE Reciprocating sliding Counterface: φ=6 mm steel ball, load: 16 N, frequency: 6 Hz 321.6 −75.4
    5wt.% RCF-RCNT reinforcer/PTFE 79.0
    Notes: h-BN—hexagonal boron nitride; AO—alumina particles; AP—aluminum dihydrogen phosphate; BP—black phosphorus; AF—aramid fiber; GF—glass fiber; BF—basalt fiber; PI—polyimide.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-14
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-19
  • 修回日期:  2022-03-03
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