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助熔剂对可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫性能的影响

商珂 林贵德 姜慧婧 金星 赵璧 王俊胜

商珂, 林贵德, 姜慧婧, 等. 助熔剂对可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫性能的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(7): 4060-4071. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220915.005
引用本文: 商珂, 林贵德, 姜慧婧, 等. 助熔剂对可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫性能的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(7): 4060-4071. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220915.005
SHANG Ke, LIN Guide, JIANG Huijing, et al. Effect of flux agents on properties of ceramifiable flame retardant room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber foam[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(7): 4060-4071. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220915.005
Citation: SHANG Ke, LIN Guide, JIANG Huijing, et al. Effect of flux agents on properties of ceramifiable flame retardant room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber foam[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(7): 4060-4071. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220915.005

助熔剂对可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫性能的影响

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220915.005
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2020 YFB0311301;2020 YFB0311300);应急管理部天津消防研究所基础科研业务费(2022 SJ19)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王俊胜,博士,副研究员,研究方向为防火阻燃材料和消防员个人防护装备 E-mail: wangjunsheng@tfri.com.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Effect of flux agents on properties of ceramifiable flame retardant room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber foam

Funds: China National Key R&D Program (2020 YFB0311301; 2020 YFB0311300); Basic Scientific Research Expenses of Tianjin Fire Science and Technology Research Institute of MEM (2022 SJ19)
  • 摘要: 为提升室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫的阻燃性能和耐火性能,本文以不同熔点玻璃粉和硼酸锌为助熔剂,云母粉为耐火填料,制备可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫,并研究了不同无机填料种类和配比对硅橡胶泡沫微观形貌、热稳定性、阻燃性能和燃烧行为的影响及不同温度烧蚀下硅橡胶泡沫的陶瓷化行为。结果表明,玻璃粉的引入影响了硅橡胶泡沫的发泡过程,形成了孔径较大的泡沫结构,不利于硅橡胶泡沫阻燃性能、热稳定性、火安全性的提升,但在烧蚀实验中,其能够显著降低硅橡胶泡沫的陶瓷化温度;硼酸锌的引入能够显著提升硅橡胶泡沫的阻燃性能、高温区热稳定性和火安全性,并且硼酸锌与云母粉展现出较好的协同阻燃作用,硅橡胶泡沫的极限氧指数(LOI)最高达到33.2%,并通过垂直燃烧FV-0级,N2气氛下热重分析测试中900℃时的残炭含量最高可达75.9%,硅橡胶泡沫的热释放和烟释放及烧蚀实验后的质量损失率均得到明显降低,同时,硼酸锌还有助于形成陶瓷状残炭。

     

  • 图  1  可陶瓷化阻燃RTV硅橡胶泡沫的SEM图像

    Figure  1.  SEM images of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam

    图  2  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫在N2气氛下的TG (a) 和DTG (b) 曲线

    Figure  2.  TG (a) and DTG (b) curves of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam under N2 atmosphere

    图  3  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫在空气气氛下的TG (a) 和DTG (b) 曲线

    Figure  3.  TG (a) and DTG (b) curves of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam under air atmosphere

    图  4  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫的热释放速率(HRR) (a)、总热释放(THR) (b)、烟释放速率(RSR) (c) 和总烟释放(TSP) (d) 曲线

    Figure  4.  Heat release rate (HRR) (a), total heat release (THR) (b), rate of smoke release (RSR) (c) and total smoke production (TSP) (d) curves of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam

    图  5  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫锥形量热测试后残炭的数码照片

    Figure  5.  Digital photographs of carbon residues for the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam after cone calorimeter test

    图  6  不同烧蚀温度下可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫的SEM图像

    Figure  6.  SEM images of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber under different ablation temperatures

    图  7  800℃烧蚀后可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫的SEM图像

    Figure  7.  SEM images of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber after ablation at 800℃

    表  1  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化(RTV)硅橡胶泡沫的配方及极限氧指数(LOI)、垂直燃烧(UL-94)测试结果

    Table  1.   Formulation, limit oxygen index (LOI) and vertical combustion (UL-94) test results of the ceramifiable flame retardant room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber foam

    SampleSRF/wt%GP/wt%ZB/wt%MP/wt%Melting point of GP/℃LOI/%UL-94
    SF 100 0 0 0 23.4 NR
    SF/MP30 70 0 0 30 31.8 FV-0
    SF/GP40010MP20 70 10 0 20 400 23.4 NR
    SF/GP40015MP15 70 15 0 15 400 24.6 NR
    SF/GP40020MP10 70 20 0 10 400 23.4 NR
    SF/GP50020MP10 70 20 0 10 500 24.0 NR
    SF/GP65020MP10 70 20 0 10 650 22.8 NR
    SF/GP40030 70 30 0 0 400 26.4 NR
    SF/ZB10MP20 70 0 10 20 33.2 FV-0
    SF/ZB15MP15 70 0 15 15 31.8 FV-0
    SF/ZB20MP10 70 0 20 10 31.0 FV-0
    SF/ZB30 70 0 30 0 31.6 FV-0
    Notes: SRF—Silicone rubber foam; GP—Glass powder; ZB—Zinc borate; MP—Mica powder; SF—Silicone foam; NR—No rating.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫N2气氛下的热重测试具体数据

    Table  2.   TGA parameters of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam under N2 atmosphere

    SampleTonset/℃Tmax/℃dW/dT/
    (%·min−1)
    Residue/%
    SF 442.0 576.0 6.36 40.1
    SF/MP30 451.7 510.8 2.24 73.0
    SF/GP40010MP20 434.9 566.2 6.75 52.8
    SF/GP40015MP15 441.4 559.4 10.20 47.5
    SF/GP40020MP10 425.2 532.8 7.44 50.4
    SF/GP50020MP10 449.7 557.3 10.41 43.7
    SF/GP65020MP10 415.8 482.2 11.14 47.7
    SF/GP40030 451.6 518.5 20.71 36.4
    SF/ZB10MP20 406.2 467.9 2.74 62.9
    SF/ZB15MP15 407.7 422.1 1.39 75.9
    SF/ZB20MP10 419.1 463.6 1.28 75.0
    SF/ZB30 418.4 421.8 1.14 74.1
    Note: Tonset, Tmax and dW/dT are the onset thermal decomposition temperature, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature and the thermal decomposition rate at the Tmax.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫空气气氛下的热重测试具体数据

    Table  3.   TGA parameters of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam under air atmosphere

    SampleTonset/℃Tmax/℃dW/dT/
    (%·min−1)
    Residue/%
    SF354.4362.0 9.8156.9
    SF/MP30378.5380.7 5.6576.0
    SF/GP40010MP20377.0509.311.9152.2
    SF/GP40015MP15375.3507.514.3946.0
    SF/GP40020MP10373.7498.915.6442.1
    SF/GP50020MP10363.3367.2 6.6564.1
    SF/GP65020MP10376.5452.817.0342.4
    SF/GP40030369.6495.816.6040.6
    SF/ZB10MP20374.4372.3 4.9180.2
    SF/ZB15MP15379.8551.9 3.9173.0
    SF/ZB20MP10376.4370.5 3.6979.5
    SF/ZB30367.7362.1 3.8281.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫的锥形量热测试主要数据

    Table  4.   Burning parameters of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam in cone calorimeter test

    SampleTTI
    /s
    PHRR
    /(kW·m−2)
    THR
    /(MJ·m−2)
    TTPHRR
    /s
    TSP/(m2·m−2)Residue
    /%
    SF 7145.040.017018.352.6
    SF/MP3013 76.623.0 30 1.779.6
    SF/GP40010MP2015117.935.7 3516.768.3
    SF/GP40015MP1523133.547.7 4517.665.4
    SF/GP40020MP1024130.742.0 4517.060.2
    SF/GP50020MP1014 98.636.3 4011.869.2
    SF/GP65020MP1050167.696.0 7049.571.4
    SF/GP4003033154.065.6 5026.966.2
    SF/ZB10MP2016 84.525.8 35 3.481.8
    SF/ZB15MP1516 73.424.5 35 3.275.7
    SF/ZB20MP1010 72.229.1 30 4.881.6
    SF/ZB3014 80.130.7 35 7.180.5
    Notes: TTI—Time to ignition; PHRR—Peak of heat release rate; TTPHRR—Time to PHRR.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  可陶瓷化阻燃室温硫化硅橡胶泡沫烧蚀后质量损失率

    Table  5.   Mass loss rate of the ceramifiable flame retardant RTV silicone rubber foam after ablation

    SampleMass loss/%
    600℃800℃1000℃
    SF89.1675.7180.33
    SF/MP3045.5620.4517.65
    SF/GP40010MP2066.7367.1867.52
    SF/GP40015MP1566.0265.7264.43
    SF/GP40020MP1062.6069.5262.12
    SF/GP50020MP1067.4966.3261.66
    SF/GP65020MP1059.7347.8551.40
    SF/GP4003064.3054.5250.00
    SF/ZB10MP2053.4532.7825.61
    SF/ZB15MP1552.0748.1926.45
    SF/ZB20MP1035.5631.6330.00
    SF/ZB3059.3935.4843.35
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-29
  • 修回日期:  2022-08-24
  • 录用日期:  2022-09-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-09-16
  • 刊出日期:  2023-04-20

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