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3D打印混凝土的流变性能及其影响因素研究综述

张立卿 郭绵珍 李洪艳 韩宝国

张立卿, 郭绵珍, 李洪艳, 等. 3D打印混凝土的流变性能及其影响因素研究综述[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-28.
引用本文: 张立卿, 郭绵珍, 李洪艳, 等. 3D打印混凝土的流变性能及其影响因素研究综述[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-28.
ZHANG Liqing, GUO Mianzhen, LI Hongyan, et al. A review of rheological properties and influencing factors of 3D printed concrete[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: ZHANG Liqing, GUO Mianzhen, LI Hongyan, et al. A review of rheological properties and influencing factors of 3D printed concrete[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

3D打印混凝土的流变性能及其影响因素研究综述

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(52368031);中国博士后科学基金(2022M713497);江西省自然科学基金(20224BAB204067);江苏省自然科学基金(BK20231088)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    张立卿,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为:功能/智能纳米混凝土与结构、绿色混凝土与结构。 E-mail: zlq@ecjtu.edu.cn

    李洪艳,博士,助理研究员,研究方向为:纳米填料复合水泥基材料和水泥基材料的流变行为以及水泥早期水化。E-mail: li15198939359@126.com

  • 中图分类号: TU528; TB333

A review of rheological properties and influencing factors of 3D printed concrete

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (52368031), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2022M713497), Jiangxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation (20224BAB204067); Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation (BK20231088)
  • 摘要: 3D打印混凝土具有绿色环保、生产高效智能、节约人力、无需模板等优势,是推动建筑行业工业化升级向智慧化和数字化发展的重要途径之一。对应混凝土3D打印的三个重要阶段:泵送、挤出和建造,决定其制备成功的可打印性主要包含可泵送性、可挤出性和可建造性,然而,这些特性之间存在着矛盾与平衡,且与流变性能密切相关。因此,混凝土流变性能是3D打印混凝土的重要影响因素,也是制约3D打印技术在土木工程中广泛应用的主要因素。目前,已有许多关于3D打印混凝土流变性能的研究,但对于3D打印混凝土流变性能的测试方案和影响因素等关键研究方向尚未形成全面的认识。基于此,本文首先汇总分析了3D打印混凝土流变参数(屈服应力、塑性黏度和触变性)的测试方案、测量范围和表征模型。其次,对3D打印混凝土流变性能的影响因素(原材料性能与配合比、打印参数和温度)进行了分析,提出了调控流变参数的方法。最后,展望了3D打印混凝土流变性能研究的未来发展方向。

     

  • 图  1  静态屈服应力测试方法及其剪切应力曲线:(a) 恒定剪切速率试验[21];(b)剪切应力-时间曲线[40]

    Figure  1.  The test method and shear stress curve of static yield stress: (a) constant shear rate test[21]; (b) shear stress-time curve[40]

    图  2  动态屈服应力和塑性黏度测试方法及其流变曲线:(a)和(b) 线性剪切法及其剪切应力-剪切速率曲线[53];(c)和(d) 阶梯式剪切法及其剪切应力-剪切速率曲线[81]

    Figure  2.  The test method and rheological curve of dynamic yield stress and plastic viscosity: (a) and (b) the test method and shear stress-shear rate curve of linear shear method[53]; (c)and (d) the test method and shear stress-shear rate curve of step shear method[81]

    图  3  触变性测试方法:(a)滞回环法[36];(b)剪切应力衰减法[44];(c)黏度恢复率法[36]

    Figure  3.  The test method of thixotropy: (a) hysteresis loop method[36]; (b) shear stress decay method[44]; (c) viscosity recovery method[36]

    图  4  砂灰比对3D打印混凝土流变性能的影响:(a)初始塑性黏度;(b)初始屈服应力;(c)初始触变性[45]

    Figure  4.  Effect of sand/cement ratio on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete: (a) initial plasticity viscosity; (b) initial yield stress; (c) initial thixotropy[45]

    图  5  黏度改性剂对3D打印混凝土(a)挤压状况和(b)屈服应力[106]的影响

    Figure  5.  Effect of viscosity modifier on (a) extrusion conditions and (b) yield stress[106] of 3D printed concrete

    图  6  缓凝剂(a)[53]和速凝剂(b)[39]对3D打印混凝土静态屈服应力的影响

    Figure  6.  Effect of retarder (a)[53] and accelerator (b)[39] on static yield stress of 3D printed concrete

    图  7  纳米粘土对3D打印混凝土流变性能影响:(a)塑性黏度;(b)动态屈服应力;(c)触变性[35]

    Figure  7.  Effect of nano clay on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete: (a) plasticity viscosity; (b) dynamic yield stress; (c) thixotropy[35]

    图  8  口罩回收纤维和PP纤维对3D打印混凝土流变性能的影响:(a)静态屈服应力;(b)动态屈服应力;(c)表观黏度[149]

    Figure  8.  Effects of mask recycled fibers and PP fibers on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete: (a) static yield stress; (b) dynamic yield stress; (c) apparent viscosity[149]

    图  9  流变参数范围划分与可打印区域:(a)静态屈服应力;(b)动态屈服应力;(c)塑性黏度;(d)可打印区域[74]

    Figure  9.  Rheological parameter range division and printable region: (a) static yield stress; (b) dynamic yield stress; (c) plastic viscosity;(d) printable region[74]

    图  10  3D打印混凝土的可打印流变参数区域[34]

    Figure  10.  Printable rheological parameter region of 3D printed concrete[34]

    图  11  微波加热在3D打印地聚物混凝土的应用:(a) 微波加热前后打印层层间温度;(b) 微波加热前后的黏度恢复率[188]

    Figure  11.  Application of microwave heating in 3D printed geopolymer concrete: (a) the layers temperature of printing layers before and after microwave heating; (b) the viscosity recovery rate before and after microwave heating[188]

    表  1  静态屈服应力演化模型对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of static yield stress evolution models

    Models Equations Fitting time Disadvantage Fitting cases of 3D printed concrete
    Roussel[65] $ {\tau }_{0}\left(t\right)={\tau }_{\mathrm{0,0}}+{A}_{thix}{t}_{rest} $
    $ {A}_{thix}=\dfrac{{\tau }_{0}}{\mathrm{T}} $
    Within 40 min after resting Its fitting time is short Perrot et al.[69]
    Perrot[66] $ {\tau }_{0}\left(t\right)={\tau }_{\mathrm{0,0}}+{A}_{thix}{t}_{c}\left({\mathrm{e}}^{{t}_{rest}/{t}_{c}}-1\right) $ From resting to printable time limit It lacks the fitting of the re-flocculation period Perrot et al.[69]、Shahmirzadi et al.[70]
    Kruger[52] $ {\tau }_{S}\left(t\right)={\tau }_{D,i}+{R}_{thix}t $ (t≤$ {\mathrm{\tau }}_{\mathrm{r}\mathrm{f}} $)
    $ {t}_{rf}=\dfrac{{\tau }_{S,i}-{\tau }_{D,i}}{{R}_{thix}} $
    $ {\tau }_{S}\left(t\right)={\tau }_{S,i}+{A}_{thix}(t-{t}_{rf}) $ (t>$ {t}_{rf} $)
    Period of re-flocculation and after 40 min of resting It needs to derive trf and can only fit the time of resting for 40 minutes Kruger et al.[52, 58]、De Vlieger et al.[40]
    Note:τ0,0: initial static yield stress, trest: resting time, T: thixotropic parameter, τ0(t): time-varying static yield stress,tc: characteristic time;τs(t): time-varying static yield stress, τD,i: initial dynamic yield stress, τS,i: initial static yield stress, t: time since cessation of agitation, trf: time period over which re-flocculation occurs.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  Bingham模型、改进Bingham模型和Herschel-Bulkley 模型对比

    Table  2.   Comparison of Bingham model, modified Bingham model and Herschel-Bulkley model

    ModelsEquationsAdvantageDisadvantageReferences
    Bingham$ \tau ={\tau }_{0}+\eta \gamma $It is a linear model to facilitate data processingIt is not suitable for shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids[36, 42, 74]
    Modified Bingham$ \tau ={\tau }_{0}+\eta \gamma +c{\gamma }^{2} $It has high fitting accuracy and avoids the case of τ0 < 0It sometimes lacks of transformation formulae[76, 82, 83]
    Herschel-Bulkley$ \tau ={\tau }_{0}+m{\gamma }^{n} $It can fit most experimental data with high fitting accuracyIt has mathematical limitations on shear-thickening fluids, sometimes fitting τ0<0[36, 42, 61, 76, 83, 84]
    Note: τ: shear stress; γ: shear rate; τ0: dynamic yield stress; η: plastic viscosity; c: second order parameter; m: consistency factor; n: flow index(n < 1: shear thinning fluid; n > 1: shear thickening fluid)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  塑性黏度表征模型

    Table  3.   Plastic viscosity characterization models

    Plastic viscosity characterization models Equations Notes
    Hu and De Larrard[90] $ \eta ={\eta }_{0}\left(1+{k}_{{\mathrm{s}}}{p}_{{\mathrm{s}}}\right){\left(1-\dfrac{{\phi }_{{\mathrm{F}}}}{{\alpha }_{{\mathrm{F}}}}\right)}^{-2.5{\alpha }_{{\mathrm{F}}}}{\left(1-\dfrac{{\phi }_{{\mathrm{C}}}}{{\alpha }_{{\mathrm{C}}}}\right)}^{-k{\alpha }_{{\mathrm{C}}}}{\left(1-\dfrac{{\phi }_{{\mathrm{G}}}}{{\alpha }_{{\mathrm{G}}}}\right)}^{-k{\alpha }_{{\mathrm{G}}}} $
    $ {\phi }_{{\mathrm{F}}}=\dfrac{{V}_{{\mathrm{F}}}}{{V}_{0}+{V}_{{\mathrm{F}}}} $ ,$ {\phi }_{{\mathrm{C}}}=\dfrac{{V}_{{\mathrm{C}}}}{{V}_{0}+{V}_{{\mathrm{F}}}+{V}_{{\mathrm{C}}}} $ ,$ {\phi }_{{\mathrm{G}}}=\dfrac{{V}_{{\mathrm{G}}}}{{V}_{0}+{V}_{{\mathrm{F}}}+{V}_{{\mathrm{C}}}+{V}_{{\mathrm{G}}}} $
    $ {\alpha }_{xmax}=1-0.45{\left(\dfrac{{d}_{{\mathrm{x}}}}{{D}_{{\mathrm{x}}}}\right)}^{0.19} $ ,x=FCG
    It fits with general accuracy
    Mahmoodzadeh and Chidiac[95] $ {\eta }_{{\mathrm{r}}}=1+{\eta }_{i}\lambda $
    $ \lambda ={y}^{3}\dfrac{4\left(1-{y}^{7}\right)}{4(1+{y}^{10})-25{y}^{3}(1+{y}^{4})+42{y}^{5}} $
    $ y\left(\phi \right)={\left(\phi /{\phi }_{\max}\right)}^{1/3}\left(1-{K}_{{\mathrm{P}}}\right) $
    $ {K}_{{\mathrm{P}}}={C}_{{\mathrm{P}}}\dfrac{{m}_{{\mathrm{c}}}}{{m}_{{\mathrm{w}}}} $
    It is more accurate to fit than the former
    Zhao et al.[93] $ \eta =46.8 F-21.09 A-24.71 R+147.09 $ It is not widely applicable
    Li et al.[94] $ {\eta }_{r}=\dfrac{D}{PFT}\times \dfrac{{\left(1-\dfrac{\phi }{{\phi }_{{\mathrm{m}}}}\right)}^{-4}}{{\left(a+b\times \dfrac{\phi }{{\phi }_{{\mathrm{m}}}}\right)}^{{\mathrm{c}}}} $ It is a semiquantitative model
    Note: η: plastic viscosity, η0: the plastic viscosity of water, ks and k: fit by curve, ps: maximum proportion of water reducing agent, F、C、G: respectively represents silica fume, cement, aggregate, $ \phi $: volume density, V: Volume fraction, $ {\alpha }_{xmax} $: Maximum particle packing density; ηr: relative plastic viscosity, ηi: intrinsic viscosity, CP: fitting parameter, mc and mw: the mass of cement and water in the mixture respectively; F: flatness, A: angularity, R: roughness; D: equivalent diameter, PFT: paste film thickness, $ \phi $: fine aggregate volume fraction, $ {\phi }_{m} $: packing density, abc: the dimensionless fitting parameters obtained from the regression analysis.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  材料比例对3D打印混凝土流变性能的影响

    Table  4.   Effect of material ratio on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete

    Material ratio Rheological parameter Ratio Growth rate/% References
    Sand-binder ratio Static yield stress 0.8→1.2 847 Shahmirzadi et al.[70]
    0→1.5 130 Liu et al.[57]
    Dynamic yield stress 0.6→1.5 173 Zhang et al.[45]
    1.0→1.8 23 Mohan et al.[102]
    Dlastic viscosity 0.6→1.5 29 Zhang et al.[45]
    1.0→1.8 153 Mohan et al.[102]
    Thixotropy 0.6→1.5 −22 Zhang et al.[45]
    0→0.67 213 Liu et al.[57]
    0.8→1.2 180 Shahmirzadi et al.[70]
    Water-binder ratio Static yield stress 0.38→0.40 −35 Mazhoud et al.[38]
    0.22→0.28 −90 Tran et al.[34]
    Plastic viscosity −97
    Thixotropy 0.38→0.40 −33 Mazhoud et al.[38]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  化学外加剂对3D打印混凝土流变性能影响

    Table  5.   Effect of chemical admixtures on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete

    Chemical admixtures Rheological parameter Content/wt.% Growth rate/% References
    Superplasticizer Static yield stress 6.1→6.9 −33 Ibrahim et al.[59]
    1.26→1.48 −73 Kruger et al.[52]
    Dynamic yield stress −130
    6.1→6.9 −32 Ibrahim et al.[59]
    Viscosity modifier Shear yield stress 0→0.4 1000 Chaves et al.[106]
    0.14→0.48 150 Chen et al.[107]
    Tensile yield stress 100
    Bulk yield stress 0→0.4 141 Chaves et al.[106]
    Static yield stress 0→0.3 81 Liu et al.[74]
    Dynamic yield stress 105611
    Plastic viscosity 176
    Dynamic yield stress 0→1 190 Long et al.[80]
    Plastic viscosity 21
    Thixotropy 130
    Retarder Static yield stress 0→0.25 −36 Chen et al.[53]
    Dynamic yield stress −24
    Plastic viscosity −14
    Static yield stress −37
    Dynamic yield stress −27
    Plastic viscosity −15
    0→0.1 15 Zhang et al.[35]
    Dynamic yield stress −80
    Thixotropy −85
    Accelerator Static yield stress 0→10 50 Yuan et al.[39]
    Note: If it is not specified in detail, the content in the table defaults to the quality content of the cementing material.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  纳米填料对3D打印混凝土流变性能影响

    Table  6.   Effect of nanofillers on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete

    Nanofillers type Rheological parameter Content/(wt.%) Growth rate/% References
    Nano silica Static yield stress 0→3 137 Kruger et al.[138]
    0→1 900 Mendoza Reales et al.[139]
    Dynamic yield stress 0→3 145 Kruger et al.[138]
    Thixotropy −44
    0→1 800 Mendoza Reales et al.[139]
    Nano calcium carbonate Static yield stress 0→4 188 Liu et al.[62]
    Nano clay Static yield stress 0→0.5 57 Panda et al.[56]
    0→1 494 Dai et al.[28]
    0→2 755 Arunothayan et al.[29]
    Dynamic yield stress 0→1 140 Dai et al.[28]
    Plastic viscosity 220
    Apparent viscosity 0→0.5 39 Panda et al.[56]
    0→2 101 Arunothayan et al.[29]
    Thixotropy 0→0.5 176 Panda et al.[56]
    0→1 105 Dai et al.[28]
    Carbon nano tube Static yield stress 0→0.1 143 Zhao et al.[15]
    Dynamic yield stress 122
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  纤维对3D打印混凝土流变性能的影响

    Table  7.   Effect of fibers on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete

    Fiber type Rheological parameter Content Growth rate/% References
    Polyvinyl alcohol fiber Bulk yield stress 0→2.2wt.% 81 Chaves et al.[106]
    Shear yield stress 0→1.6wt.% 75
    Dynamic yield stress 0→0.5wt.% 25 Chougan et al.[135]
    Polypropylene fiber Static yield stress 0→9wt.% 69 Ibrahim et al.[59]
    Dynamic yield stress 97
    0→5.4 Kg/m3 1667 Tran et al.[34]
    Plastic viscosity 107
    Steel fiber Initial shear yield stress 0→2 vol.% 395 Arunothayan et al.[29]
    Thixotropic stress 494
    Thixotropy 293
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  矿物掺和料对3D打印混凝土流变性能影响

    Table  8.   Effect of mineral admixtures on rheological properties of 3D printed concrete

    Types of mineral admixtures Rheological parameter Content/wt.% Growth rate/% References
    Silica fume Static yield stress 0→10 140 Panda et al.[153]
    Dynamic yield stress 0→2 70 zhang et al.[35]
    0→10 650 Guo et al.[43]
    Plastic viscosity 0→2 30 zhang et al.[35]
    0→12 1320 Liu et al.[74]
    Thixotropy 0→2 33 zhang et al.[35]
    0→10 185 Panda et al.[153]
    0→10 767 Guo et al.[43]
    Fly ash Static yield stress 50→80 −57 Panda et al.[154]
    0→20 −45 Aydin et al.[61]
    Dynamic yield stress 0→40 −62 Xu et al.[30]
    0→20 −73 Aydin et al.[61]
    Apparent viscosity 0→40 −201 Xu et al.[30]
    50→80 −20 Panda et al.[154]
    Thixotropy 0→20 −90 Aydin et al.[61]
    Limestone packing Static yield stress 0→15 44 Dey et al.[155]
    0→70 123 Wang et al.[55]
    Dynamic yield stress 141
    0→30 182 Nair et al.[152]
    Plastic viscosity 0→70 238 Wang et al.[55]
    0→30 30 Nair et al.[152]
    Blast furnace slag Static yield stress 0→10 128 Panda et al.[153]
    0→10 726 Guo et al.[43]
    Dynamic yield stress 61
    Plastic viscosity 196
    Metakaolin Static yield stress 0→3 75 Chen et al.[36]
    0→10 285 Duan et al.[31]
    Dynamic yield stress 0→3 27 Chen et al.[36]
    0→10 129 Duan et al.[31]
    Plastic viscosity 49
    Thixotropy 0→3 62 Chen et al.[36]
    0→10 5457 Duan et al.[31]
    Note: If it is not specified in detail, the content in the table defaults to the quality content of the cementing material.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-02-22
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