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辐射冷却材料的结构调控及其在建筑领域应用的研究进展

黎子琦 祝智军 吴晓鸿 陈大柱

黎子琦, 祝智军, 吴晓鸿, 等. 辐射冷却材料的结构调控及其在建筑领域应用的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-17.
引用本文: 黎子琦, 祝智军, 吴晓鸿, 等. 辐射冷却材料的结构调控及其在建筑领域应用的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-17.
LI Ziqi, ZHU Zhijun, WU Xiaohong, et al. Research progress on structural control of radiative cooling materials and its application in buildings[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: LI Ziqi, ZHU Zhijun, WU Xiaohong, et al. Research progress on structural control of radiative cooling materials and its application in buildings[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

辐射冷却材料的结构调控及其在建筑领域应用的研究进展

基金项目: 广东省自然科学基金(2023 A1515012274);深圳市基础研究重点项目 (JCYJ20220818100003006)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    陈大柱,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为高分子复合材料,E-mail: dzchen@szu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332;P422.6

Research progress on structural control of radiative cooling materials and its application in buildings

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province(2023 A1515012274);Key Project of Shenzhen Basic Research(JCYJ20220818100003006)
  • 摘要: 伴随着化石能源的大量消耗,人类生存环境受到严重威胁。其中,建筑能耗在能源总消耗中所占比例持续攀升,有效管理建筑物热量传递的被动式冷却技术成为备受关注的研究热点。辐射制冷技术可以反射太阳光并通过“大气窗口”将热量辐射到外太空使物体表面自发冷却,因其不消耗任何能源就可以实现辐射降温而受到了国内外研究者的广泛关注。近年来,辐射冷却技术在建筑领域的应用快速发展,面临的主要问题是制备工艺复杂、生产成本较高和易受外界环境影响等。本文从辐射冷却原理出发,对最近几年辐射冷却材料在建筑领域的相关研究进行了归纳和总结,重点介绍了辐射冷却材料的制备技术以及影响辐射冷却性能的主要因素,并进一步按照主动式建筑节能和被动式建筑节能分类,详细阐述了辐射冷却材料在建筑领域的应用情况,最后对其存在的问题以及未来的研究方向进行了总结和展望,指出未来的研究应着眼于探索工艺简单、可大批量制备的辐射冷却材料,开发低成本且多功能集成的应用产品,并建立具体的标准和法规。

     

  • 图  1  辐射冷却材料的能量流动

    Figure  1.  Energy flow diagram of the passive cooler

    图  2  (a)PVDF的SEM图像和PVDF、TiO2-PVDF的红外光谱曲线[5];PDMS的SEM图像和吸收率[6];PMMA的SEM图像和反射率[29];(b)PTFE涂层纸复合材料的表面润湿状态、微观结构和光谱表征图[11]

    Figure  2.  (a) SEM images of PVDF and infrared spectral curves of PVDF、TiO2-PVDF [5]; SEM images and absorptivity of PDMS[6]; The SEM images and reflectance of PMMA[29] and the surface wetting state; (b) surface-wetting states and microstructures of PTFE-coated paper composites[11].

    图  3  (a)Raman [23]和(b)Chae[13]制备的多层结构辐射冷却材料

    Figure  3.  Multilayered radiation-cooled materials prepared by (a) Raman [23] and (b) Chae[13]

    图  4  随机分布的粒子结构:(a)SiO2微球随机分布在TPX上以银为背衬的超材料结构示意图[14];(b)人体皮肤自然褶皱仿生结构涂层[25];(c)具有随机分布的MgO/PVDF纳米颗粒辐射冷却涂料[26]

    Figure  4.  Randomly distributed particle structure:(a) The schematic diagram of the metamaterial structure of SiO2 microspheres randomly distributed on TPX with silver as the substrate[14]; (b) Human skin natural fold bionic structure coating[25]; (c) Radiative cooling coatings with randomly distributed MgO / PVDF nanoparticles[26]

    图  5  (a)非常规结构棒状粒子(RLP)示意图[27];(b)PMMAHPA薄膜微纳米多孔阵列示意图[29];(c)非对称珊瑚状多孔薄膜SEM图像[28]

    Figure  5.  (a) The schematic diagram of rod-like particles (RLP) with unconventional structure[27]; (b) PMMAHPA film with a hierarchically porous array[29]; (c) SEM images of asymmetric coral-like porous films[28]

    图  6  辐射冷却材料的常用制备技术[34,37,45,49]

    Figure  6.  Common preparation technologies for radiation-cooled materials[34,37,45,49]

    图  7  用于日间被动辐射供冷的环境稳定微孔玻璃涂层[48]

    Figure  7.  An environmentally stable glass coating for daytime passive radiative cooling[48]

    图  8  (a) 辐射冷却收集(RadiCold)模块示意图[54];(b)光伏结合辐射冷却系统(PV-RSC)[56];(c)新型辐射冷却辅助热电(PSC-TEC)系统[57]

    Figure  8.  (a) The schematic diagram of the radiation cooling collection (RadiCold) module[54];(b) Photovoltaic combined with radiation cooling system ( PV-RSC ) [56];(c) Radiation cooling assisted thermoelectric ( PSC-TEC ) system[57]

    图  9  辐射冷却材料在建筑领域的应用:(a)原理示意图[68];(b)外墙及屋顶涂料[44];(c)墙体[61];(d)智能窗户[63];(e)冷却木材[64];(f)冷却纤维素板材和纯木板材的SEM图像[65]

    Figure  9.  Application of radiative cooling materials in architrcture: (a) Principle diagram[68];(b) The coating of exterior wall and roof[44];(c) Wall[61]; (d) Intelligent window[63];(e) Cooling wood[64];(f) The SEM images of the cooling lignocellulosic bulk and the pure wood fiber bulk[65]

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  • 收稿日期:  2023-01-31
  • 修回日期:  2024-04-16
  • 录用日期:  2024-04-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-28

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