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陶瓷基复合材料涡轮叶盘设计、制备与考核验证

刘小冲 徐友良 李坚 罗潇 郭小军 胡晓安 曹学强 李龙彪 刘持栋 董宁 刘永胜

刘小冲, 徐友良, 李坚, 等. 陶瓷基复合材料涡轮叶盘设计、制备与考核验证[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-11
引用本文: 刘小冲, 徐友良, 李坚, 等. 陶瓷基复合材料涡轮叶盘设计、制备与考核验证[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-11
Xiaochong LIU, Youliang XU, Jian LI, Xiao LUO, Xiaojun GUO, Xiaoan HU, Xueqiang CAO, Longbiao LI, Chidong LIU, Ning DONG, Yongsheng LIU. Design, fabrication and testing of ceramic-matrix composite turbine blisk[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: Xiaochong LIU, Youliang XU, Jian LI, Xiao LUO, Xiaojun GUO, Xiaoan HU, Xueqiang CAO, Longbiao LI, Chidong LIU, Ning DONG, Yongsheng LIU. Design, fabrication and testing of ceramic-matrix composite turbine blisk[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

陶瓷基复合材料涡轮叶盘设计、制备与考核验证

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金重大研究计划重点支持项目(92060202);国家自然科学基金 (52172100)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    徐友良,博士,研究员,研究方向为发动机结构与强度 E-mail:youliang_xu@163.com

  • 中图分类号: (TB332)

Design, fabrication and testing of ceramic-matrix composite turbine blisk

  • 摘要: 涡轮转子是燃气涡轮发动机的核心部件。针对SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘设计、制备与考核验证开展研究,采用蛛网仿形SiC纤维预制体作为涡轮叶盘的增强体,预制体表面分别沉积BN界面相与SiC基体,通“在线加工”方式对SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘分别进行粗加工和精加工,采用大气等离子喷涂方法制备环境障碍涂层,形成满足设计要求的涡轮叶盘。采用CT对SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘进行无损检测,表征叶盘内部缺陷分布。针对制备的SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘开展性能评价、超转试验、台架试验等考核验证,研究表明:SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘最大破坏强度达到300 MPa;在室温超转试验中,当转速达到n = 104166 r/min时,叶片发生断裂,当转速达到n = 108072 r/min时,轮体发生破裂;在发动机台架试验中,累积完成了N = 994次最高转速nmax = 60000 r/min的循环载荷以及N = 100次最高转速nmax = 70000 r/min的循环载荷试车考核。2022年1月1日,SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘在株洲成功完成了首次飞行试验验证,这也是国内陶瓷基复合材料转子首次配装平台的空中飞行试验,验证了SiC/SiC涡轮转子在航空发动机上应用的可行性。

     

  • 图  1  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘SiC纤维预制体设计方案

    Figure  1.  Design of SiC fiber preform in SiC/SiC turbine blisk

    图  2  蛛网仿生结构SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘预制体定型

    Figure  2.  Spider Web Structure fiber perform of SiC/SiC turbine blisk

    图  3  SiC纤维表面BN界面相检测取样及厚度测试

    Figure  3.  Sampling and thickness measurement of BN interphase on SiC fiber surface

    图  4  SiC纤维预制体SiC基体致密化 (a) 预制体SiC沉积;(b) 高温模具脱除后的SiC预制体

    Figure  4.  SiC matrix densification on the SiC fiber preform (a) Deposition of SiC matrix; and (b) SiC preform after removing mold

    图  5  SiC基体沉积纯度检验结果

    Figure  5.  Purity test result of the SiC matrix

    图  6  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘在线加工成型过程

    Figure  6.  On-line machining process of SiC/SiC turbine blisk

    图  7  EBCs截面形貌SEM照片

    Figure  7.  Cross-section SEM morphology of EBCs

    图  8  EBCs-SiC/SiC经过1350℃空气气氛保温300 h的三点弯曲载荷-位移曲线

    Figure  8.  Three-point bending curve of EBCs-SiC/SiC after holding at 1350 oC in air atmosphere for 300 h

    图  9  EBCs-SiC/SiC三点弯曲后(a)断口形貌;(b)截面形貌

    Figure  9.  (a) Fracture surface; and (b) Cross-section surface of EBCs-SiC/SiC after three-point flexure testing

    图  10  EBCs-SiC/SiC (a)表面烧蚀温度曲线;(b)表面烧蚀2000次后的外观形貌

    Figure  10.  (a) Surface ablation temperature curve; (b) Morphology after 2000 times of surface ablation of EBCs-SiC/SiC

    图  11  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘CT检测图

    Figure  11.  CT detection of SiC/SiC turbine blisk

    图  12  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘CT数据3 D重构分析

    Figure  12.  3 D reconstruction analysis of SiC/SiC turbine disk CT data

    图  13  SiC/SiC在1400oC真空环境下的拉伸应力-应变曲线

    Figure  13.  Tensile stress-strain curve of SiC/SiC composite at 1400oC in vacuum atmosphere

    图  14  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘性能评价方法 (a) 随炉圆环试样;(b) 缺口圆环试样;(c) 拉伸断裂测试;(d) 断裂试样;(e) 有限元仿真缺口圆环试样断裂;(f) 涡轮叶盘应力分布

    Figure  14.  Evaluation of SiC/SiC turbine blisk performance (a) Circular specimen; (b) Notched circular specimen; (c) Tensile fracture test; (d) Fracture specimen; (e) Finite element simulation of notched circular specimen fracture; and (f) Turbine blisk stress distribution

    图  15  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘超转实验 (a)旋转试验台;(b) CT检测系统;(c) 涡轮叶盘试验件;(d) 激光测频系统.

    Figure  15.  SiC/SiC turbine blisk over rotation experiment (a) Rotation test equipment; (b) CT detection system; (c) Turbine blisk; (d) Laser frequency measurement system.

    图  16  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘室温超转试验结果 (a) 叶片飞断;(b) 超转破坏后的残骸;(c) 碎块体视镜照片;(d) 碎块体扫描电镜照片

    Figure  16.  Results of over rotation test of SiC/SiC turbine blisk at room temperature (a) Blade flying off; (b) Fragments after over rotation damage; (c) Fragment stereoscopic photo; and (d) Fragment SEM photo

    图  17  发动机台架试验考核 (a) 发动机试车台;(b) 安装在发动机内的SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘;(c) SiC/SiC原始涡轮叶盘;(d) EBCs-SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘;(e) N=994次n=60000 r/min试验后的轮盘表面状态;(f) 表面氧化形貌;(g)扫面电镜下观察轮盘表面氧化产物形貌;(h)扫面电镜下观察轮盘表面氧化产物形貌;(i) 叶片掉块;(j) CT切片;(k) CT切片

    Figure  17.  Engine bench test assessment (a) Engine test bench; (b) SiC/SiC turbine blisk assembled in the test engine; (c) Original SiC/SiC turbine blisk; (d) EBCs-SiC/SiC turbine blisk; (e) EBC-SiC/SiC turbine blisk after N=994 tests at n=60000 r/min; (f) Surface morphology of SiC/SiC turbine blisk after test (g) Surface morphology of oxidation products under SEM; (h) Surface morphology of oxidation products under SEM; (i) Damage in the blade; (j) CT section; and (k) CT section

    图  18  发动机台架试验考核 (a) 轮盘转速曲线;(b) 排气温度和油耗曲线

    Figure  18.  Engine bench test assessment (a) Turbine blisk rotation curves; and (b) Exhaust temperature and fuel consumption curves

    图  19  SiC/SiC涡轮叶盘飞行考核试验

    Figure  19.  Flight testing of SiC/SiC turbine blisk

    表  1  叶片频率衰退范围统计表

    Table  1.   Statistical of blade frequency degradation range

    Degradation rangeNumber of blades
    0.0%~0.5%0
    0.5%~1.0%0
    1.0%~1.5%4
    1.5%~2.0%13
    2.0%~2.5%2
    2.5%~3.0%2
    3.0%~3.5%2
    3.5%~4.0%0
    4.0%~4.5%0
    4.5%~5.0%1
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-07
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-31
  • 修回日期:  2022-03-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-18

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