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低密度防隔热材料分层缺陷的空气耦合超声检测及分析

肖轲迪 马兆庆 高晨家 陈博 袁生平 罗明 支凡 唐君 余立琼 吴时红 赵建华

肖轲迪, 马兆庆, 高晨家, 等. 低密度防隔热材料分层缺陷的空气耦合超声检测及分析[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-10.
引用本文: 肖轲迪, 马兆庆, 高晨家, 等. 低密度防隔热材料分层缺陷的空气耦合超声检测及分析[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-10.
XIAO Kedi, MA Zhaoqing, GAO Chenjia, et al. Air-coupled ultrasonic testing and analysis on delamination defect of low-density thermal protection and insulation material[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: XIAO Kedi, MA Zhaoqing, GAO Chenjia, et al. Air-coupled ultrasonic testing and analysis on delamination defect of low-density thermal protection and insulation material[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

低密度防隔热材料分层缺陷的空气耦合超声检测及分析

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    肖轲迪,博士,高级工程师,研究方向为超声无损检测 E-mail: kedixiao@sina.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB553;TG115.28;TB332

Air-coupled ultrasonic testing and analysis on delamination defect of low-density thermal protection and insulation material

  • 摘要: 低密度防隔热材料是航天飞行器热防护系统的重要组成材料,具有密度低、孔隙率高、热导率低等特点,在轻质的同时具备优异的防隔热性能。但是,该类型材料及其结构特点为材料内部缺陷的无损检测带来较大困难,常规超声喷水穿透法不适用,红外法效果较差。针对石英纤维针刺织物增强酚醛树脂基低密度防隔热材料内部分层缺陷的检测问题,开展了空气耦合超声检测研究。在研究中,通过X射线Micro-CT检测分析了材料的微观结构,估算了分层缺陷声压透射率与空气间隙厚度的关系,制作了密度分别为0.4、0.5、0.6、0.7 g/cm3材料的缺陷试样,并通过空气耦合超声检测搭配50、140、200 kHz频率探头对缺陷试样进行了检测研究。结果表明,空气耦合超声检测能有效发现低密度防隔热材料中的分层缺陷,检测适用频率和检测能力与材料密度和材料均匀性有关。在材料厚度30 mm,分层缺陷空气间隙厚度0.3 mm时,使用频率50 kHz的空气耦合超声探头,在密度0.4~0.7 g/cm3材料中均能发现直径30 mm及以上尺寸的缺陷。

     

  • 图  1  低密度防隔热材料Micro-CT检测图像

    Figure  1.  Micro-CT detection images of low-density thermal protection and insulation material

    图  2  超声波传播路径示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of ultrasonic wave propagation paths

    图  3  分层缺陷空气间隙的声压透射率与频厚积的关系

    Figure  3.  Relationship between sound pressure transmittance and frequency-thickness product in air gap of delamination defect

    图  4  缺陷试样上的人工缺陷排布示意图

    Figure  4.  Layout diagram of artificial defects in specimens

    图  5  缺陷试样实物照片

    Figure  5.  Photo of specimens

    图  6  缺陷试样200 kHz频率探头的扫描图像

    Figure  6.  Specimen detection images of 200 kHz frequency probe

    图  7  缺陷试样140 kHz频率探头的扫描图像

    Figure  7.  Specimen detection images of 140 kHz frequency probe

    图  8  缺陷试样50 kHz频率探头的扫描图像

    Figure  8.  Specimen detection images of 50 kHz frequency probe

    图  9  材料中小缝隙的Micro-CT检测图像

    Figure  9.  Micro-CT detection image of small gap in material

    图  10  材料中小缝隙在铺层切面上的分布

    Figure  10.  Distribution examples of small gaps in material on lamination section

    表  1  200 kHz频率探头在不同密度材料及不同尺寸缺陷处的穿透波分贝值(单位:dB)

    Table  1.   Transmission wave decibel values of 200 kHz frequency probe at different density materials and different defect sizes (unit: dB)

    Defect diameterDensity
    0.4 g/cm3
    Density
    0.5 g/cm3
    Density
    0.6 g/cm3
    Density
    0.7 g/cm3
    Good areaCannot
    distinguish
    −31.8~−28.4
    −13.1~−1.7−15.3~−2.9−22.2~−7.2
    20 mm−22.7−20.2−21.6
    30 mm−25.6−21.0−31.4
    40 mm−27.0−27.4−31.4
    50 mm−30.3−30.2−32.9
    100 mm−31.3−33.6−32.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  140 kHz频率探头在不同密度材料及不同尺寸缺陷处的穿透波分贝值(单位:dB)

    Table  2.   Transmission wave decibel values of 140 kHz frequency probe at different density materials and different defect sizes (unit: dB)

    Defect diameter Density
    0.4 g/cm3
    Density
    0.5 g/cm3
    Density
    0.6 g/cm3
    Density
    0.7 g/cm3
    Good area −30.1~−18.9 −6.9~−3.2 −17.3~−3.8 −22.9~−6.7
    20 mm −35.6~−33.1 −24.7 −19.4 −23.1
    30 mm −32.9 −28.4 −32.2
    40 mm −35.5 −35.3 −38.5
    50 mm −38.7 −37.6 −40.7
    100 mm −41.3 −40.7 −44.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  50 kHz频率探头在不同密度材料及不同尺寸缺陷处的穿透波分贝值(单位:dB)

    Table  3.   Transmission wave decibel values of 50 kHz frequency probe at different density materials and different defect sizes (unit: dB)

    Defect diameter Density
    0.4 g/cm3
    Density
    0.5 g/cm3
    Density
    0.6 g/cm3
    Density
    0.7 g/cm3
    Good area −8.0~−5.3 −6.5~−5.5 −6.5~−5.7 −6.9~−5.8
    30 mm −17.2 −21.5 −17.4 −22.8
    40 mm −20.9 −23.2 −22.1 −24.6
    50 mm −30.1 −23.4 −23.7 −26.0
    100 mm −35.9 −28.9 −30.4 −32.4
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-03-04
  • 修回日期:  2024-04-15
  • 录用日期:  2024-04-18
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