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超疏水涂层的制备、性能及应用研究进展

杨立凯 吴林森 杨旭 马佳晨 聂永 蒋绪川

杨立凯, 吴林森, 杨旭, 等. 超疏水涂层的制备、性能及应用研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-18.
引用本文: 杨立凯, 吴林森, 杨旭, 等. 超疏水涂层的制备、性能及应用研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-18.
YANG Likai, WU Linsen, YANG Xu, et al. Recent progress in the preparation, properties and applications of superhydrophobic coatings[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: YANG Likai, WU Linsen, YANG Xu, et al. Recent progress in the preparation, properties and applications of superhydrophobic coatings[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

超疏水涂层的制备、性能及应用研究进展

基金项目: 山东省博士后创新项目(SDCX-ZG-202302017); 山东省高等学校青年创新团队发展计划(2022KJ285); 济南大学科技计划项目(XKY2120)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    马佳晨, 博士, 讲师, 研究方向为复合材料的界面结构调控及性能研究 E-mail: ism_majc@ujn.edu.cn

    蒋绪川, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 研究方向为功能无机纳米材料的制备及应用研究 E-mail: ism_jiangxc@ujn.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB34

Recent progress in the preparation, properties and applications of superhydrophobic coatings

Funds: Shandong Province Postdoctoral Innovation Project (SDCX-ZG-202302017); Shandong Province Colleges and Universities Youth Innovation Technology Plan Innovation Team Project (2022KJ285); Science and Technology Program of University of Jinan (XKY2120)
  • 摘要: 随着材料工程和涂料工业的发展,具有耐腐蚀、自清洁、防雾、减阻或抗结冰等性能的超疏水涂层由于能够满足不同应用领域的功能需求,越来越受到研究人员的关注。此外,通过进一步在涂层内部引入隔热、防冰、阻燃、防腐等功能填料可赋予其多功能性,极大地拓宽了超疏水涂层的应用领域。本文首先对超疏水涂层的原理进行了梳理;进一步阐述了超疏水涂层的经典润湿理论,包括杨氏模型、Wenzel模型和Cassie-Baxter模型;随后分析了超疏水涂层不同制备方法的特点,并对各方法的优缺点进行了对比;最后通过介绍掺杂功能填料的多功能超疏水涂层研究进展,指出超疏水涂层存在的主要问题,并对其发展方向进行了展望。

     

  • 图  1  多功能超疏水涂层的应用

    Figure  1.  Application of multifunctional superhydrophobic coating

    图  2  (a) 杨氏模型图示; (b) 前进接触角θA; (c) 后退接触角θR[38]

    Figure  2.  (a) Illustration of Young's model; (b) Advancing contact angle θA; (c) Receding contact angle θR[38]

    图  3  (a) 表观接触角[38]; (b-d) Wenzel模型、Cassie-Baxter模型和混合模型示意图[32]

    Figure  3.  (a) Apparent contact angle[38]; (b-d) Schematic of Wenzel’s model, Cassie-Baxter’s model, and mixed model, respectively[32]

    图  4  (a) 模板的制备; (b) 超疏水软管的制备[46]

    Figure  4.  (a) Preparation of the template; (b) Preparation of the superhydrophobic flexible tube[46]

    图  5  超疏水涂层制备示意图及表征[52]

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of preparation of superhydrophobic coating and characterization[52]

    图  6  透明耐磨超疏水SiO2结构制备示意图[56]

    Figure  6.  Schematic diagram of the preparation of transparent wear-resistant superhydrophobic SiO2 structure[56]

    图  7  超疏水表面制备工艺示意图[60]

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of fabrication process of superhydrophobic surface[60]

    图  8  SLS型3D打印策略[64]

    Figure  8.  SLS-type 3D printing strategy[64]

    图  9  (a) ∆Gri关系图; (b) 临界半径为(ri,c)的冰胚示意图[70]; (c) 液滴温度(20 μL)随时间变化及不同状态下(冷冻过程之前、期间和之后)对应的液滴图片; (d) 在不同状态下(冷冻过程之前、期间和之后)捕获的红外图像[71]

    Figure  9.  (a) ∆G and ri relationship diagram[70]; (b) Schematic diagram of an ice embryo with a critical radius of (ri,c); (c) Droplet (20 μL) temperature changes over time and corresponding droplet pictures under different states (before, during and after the freezing process); (d) Infrared images captured in different states (before, during and after the freezing process)[71]

    图  10  (a) 空白铝基材、SILIKOPHEN AC1000和超疏水(SHP)涂层的冰粘附强度; (b) SHP涂层的结冰/除冰耐久性; (c) 不同温度下样品表面的水接触角; (d) 不同亚冰点温度下样品表面水滴的冻结时间[72]

    Figure  10.  (a) Ice adhesion strength measurements by push-off and centrifuge tests on bare aluminium, SILIKOPHEN AC1000, and SHP coating; (b) icing/de-icing durability test results for the SHP coating; (c) CA of water droplets on the samples at different temperatures; (d) the freezing time of water droplets on different samples at different sub-freezing temperatures[72]

    图  11  超疏水复合涂层的制备和表征示意图[76]

    Figure  11.  Schematic illustration of the fabrication of superhydrophobic composite coating and characterization[76]

    图  12  (a) PDMS-PBA合成路线; (b) N-硼氧化物-PDMS合成示意图. 插图:N-硼氧化物-PDMS胶片照片[80]

    Figure  12.  (a) Synthesis route of PDMS-PBA; (b) Schematic of the formation of N-Boroxine-PDMS from PDMS-PBA. Inset: photograph of an N-Boroxine-PDMS film[80]

    图  13  (a,b) 超疏水阻燃织物的制备工艺; (c) 未改性PET织物、ASP涂层织物和F-ASP涂层织物的接触角照片; (d) 未改性PET织物, ASP涂层织物和F-ASP涂层织物的垂直燃烧实验照片[86]

    Figure  13.  (a,b) Preparation process of super hydrophobic flame retardant fabric; (c) Contact Angle photos of unmodified PET fabric, ASP coated fabric and F-ASP coated fabric; (d) Photographs of vertical burning experiments of unmodified PET fabrics, ASP coated fabrics and F-ASP coated fabrics[86]

    图  14  (a) 模拟太阳辐射实验的升温曲线; (b) 样板房示意图[89]

    Figure  14.  (a) The temperature rising curves of the simulated solar irradiation experiment; (b) Schematic representation of a model house[89]

    图  15  超疏水隔热涂料制备工艺[90]

    Figure  15.  Scheme outlining the preparation process of the superhydrophobic thermal insulation coatings[90]

    表  1  超疏水表面制备方法、性能及应用

    Table  1.   Preparation methods, properties and applications of superhydrophobic surface

    Method Process Advantages Disadvantages Substrates Reference
    Templating method The low surface energy template was prepared, the rough structure of which was replicated, and subsequently removed Easy to process
    Low costing
    Stencil removal difficulty Glass
    Metal
    [45-47]
    Sol-gel method Preparation of homogeneous sol, the sol into gel, remove the solvent in the gel, further solidification gel forming a superhydrophobic material with a specific structure Easy to process
    Easy to control
    long processing time
    Easy to shrink
    Glass
    Fabric
    [48-52]
    Coating method Prepare coating solution and dry after spraying Low costing
    Wide application range
    Poor adhesion Glass
    Metal
    Wood
    Fabric
    [53,54]
    Chemical deposition Through chemical reaction, low surface energy nanoparticles are deposited on the surface of the substrate to form fine and high-performance thin films Easy to process
    Strong acid and alkaline resistance
    Slow deposition rate
    Air pollution
    Glass
    Wood
    Fabric
    [55-57]
    Electro-chemical deposition Ions undergo a REDOX reaction under an applied electric field and attach other metal coatings to the surface of one metal by electrodeposition High efficiency
    Corrosion resistance
    Poor adhesion
    poor abrasion
    Limited in application
    Metal [58-60]
    Laser etching High energy laser is used to ablate the substrate, which causes a series of reactions under photoelectric or photothermal action and changes the surface roughness of the substrate Easy to control and manipulate
    Pollution-free
    High cost, Glass
    Metal
    [61-65]
    Chemical etching The glass or metal parts are immersed in an etching solution to obtain the desired etching structure and roughness Easy to process
    Low costing
    Poor uniformity Glass
    Metal
    [66-68]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  多功能超疏水涂层

    Table  2.   Multifunctional superhydrophobic coating

    Function Principle Function and application Substrates Reference
    Anti-icing Inhibit ice cores, prevent frost formation, and reduce ice adhesion Reduce solid surface ice accumulation
    Delayed icing
    Solar panels, cables [69-73]
    Anticorrosion A physical barrier is constructed between the substrate and the corrosive medium to inhibit interfacial corrosion Improve corrosion resistance of the substrate Ship shell, pipeline [74-76]
    Self-healing Regeneration of roughness structures, storage and release of healing agents Extended coating life Glass, wood, fabric [77-80]
    Flame retardant The coating forms a dense coke layer that causes the coated fabric to self-extinguishes during vertical combustion tests Enhance the flame retardancy of the substrate Fabrics, protective materials, furniture [81-86]
    Thermal insulation Near infrared reflection/shielding Heat insulation and cooling Window glass, outdoor cabinet [87-90]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-01-03
  • 修回日期:  2024-02-10
  • 录用日期:  2024-03-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-04-08

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