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预浸料叠层预成型中的层间滑移研究进展

王立冬 张玄明 何慕 高悦 刘德学

王立冬, 张玄明, 何慕, 等. 预浸料叠层预成型中的层间滑移研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-14.
引用本文: 王立冬, 张玄明, 何慕, 等. 预浸料叠层预成型中的层间滑移研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-14.
WANG Lidong, ZHANG Xuanming, HE mu, et al. Research progress on inter-ply slipping in prepreg stacking preforming[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: WANG Lidong, ZHANG Xuanming, HE mu, et al. Research progress on inter-ply slipping in prepreg stacking preforming[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

预浸料叠层预成型中的层间滑移研究进展

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (12262019)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王立冬,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为复合材料成型工艺力学建模 E-mail: wangld@lut.edu.cn

    刘德学,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为材料成型控性与使役 E-mail: dxliu@lut.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Research progress on inter-ply slipping in prepreg stacking preforming

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 12262019)
  • 摘要: 层间滑移是预浸料叠层预成型中重要成型机制之一,层间滑移机制的研究可以对起皱和撕裂等缺陷进行有效预测和控制,对提高复合材料的力学性能和使用寿命具有重要的理论意义。目前,层间滑移机制的研究主要通过层间滑移测试和层间滑移模型构建的方式进行,其中最常用的测试方法是通过自主搭建层间滑移装置进行不同预浸料铺层和工艺条件下的性能测试;在模型构建方面,根据层间滑移模型的构成特点,可将模型分为三类:早期混合模型、基于Stribeck理论的唯象模型和经验模型。本文首先对层间滑移装置进行分类综述,剖析了每种类型装置的优缺点,然后详细介绍了层间滑移性能的表征及模型的构建等研究成果,最后对树脂基复合材料成型中的层间滑移发展方向进行了展望。

     

  • 图  1  pull-out法原理示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of pull-out method

    图  2  两种类型pull-through法原理示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of two types of pull-through principle

    图  3  Bohlin CVOR200流变仪[42]

    Figure  3.  Bohlin CVOR200 Rheometer[42]

    图  4  Heyers等设计的流变仪结构示意图[78]

    Figure  4.  Schematic structure of the rheometer designed by Heyers et al. [78]

    图  5  Zhao等设计的装置示意图[60]

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of the device designed by Zhao et al. [60]

    图  6  Wang等设计的装置示意图[21]

    Figure  6.  Schematic diagram of the device designed by Wang et al. [21]

    图  7  李林秀等设计的装置示意图[55]

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of the device designed by Li et al. [55]

    图  8  Liebl等设计的装置[56]

    Figure  8.  Device designed by Liebl et al. [56]

    图  9  Stribeck曲线和不同实验结果在曲线上的所处范围[55,62,69,81,93]

    Figure  9.  The Stribeck curve and the range on the curve where different experimental results reside[55,62,69,81,93]

    表  1  不同学者建立的层间滑移装置简介

    Table  1.   Introduction to inter-ply slipping device established by different scholars

    Sholar Experimental principle Heating method Loading method Specificities
    Murtagh et al.[45](1995) pull-out Heating plate Hydraulic press/Weight Two test methods were used and were among the earlier scholars to conduct pull-out tests.
    Martin et al.[44](1996) pull-out Heating plate Pneumatic cylinder Use locating pins to lock the platens together to prevent misalignment.
    Lebrun et al.[47](2004) pull-out Cartridge heaters Springs It is possible to perform prepreg-prepreg and tool-prepreg slip experiments.
    Ersoy et al.[46](2005) pull-out Heating plate Springs A rubber mat is used under the prepreg to ensure even pressure distribution.
    Kaushik and Raghavan[65](2010) pull-through Heating plate Pneumatic cylinder Inter-ply slip test system for autoclave environments.
    Larberg and Åkermo[53](2011) pull-through Temperature chamber Pneumatic cylinder The stability of this part must be ensured when pulling the hinge mechanism consisting of cylinders.
    Joven[48](2013) pull-out Heating plate Pneumatic cylinder Flexible bushings are fitted to the test stand base to increase the sensitivity of the system, but only for temperature testing.
    Sun et al.[49](2014) pull-out Heating film Springs Aluminum plates and rubber pads were used between the heating films and the specimen to ensure that the temperature and pressure were uniformly distributed over the testing areas.
    Erland et al.[41](2015) pull-through Temperature chamber Pneumatic cylinder Similar to the device designed by Larberg[40].
    Yu et al.[66,67](2021) pull-through Non-heating device Weight Simple structure, but lacks a heating device.
    Kim et al.[62](2021) pull-through Resistance wire Pneumatic cylinder The pressure between the pressure plate and the mounting surface should not be excessive.
    Rashidi et al.[54,68](2021) pull-through Heating plate Hydraulic cylinder Uniform normal pressure distribution must be ensured, and the device can also achieve the same parameters as in a hot press tank.
    Liu et al.[69](2021) pull-through Temperature chamber Rotating shaft Pressure is adjusted by rotating the Rotating shaft.
    Li et al.[61](2023) pull-through Heating plate Pneumatic cylinder The cylinder applying pressure part is similar to the device of Zhao[47].
    Dutta et al.[70](2023) pull-through Cartridge heaters Pneumatic cylinder Similar to the device designed by Larberg[40].
    Liu et al.[64](2023) pull-through Temperature chamber Springs The structure is simple and can only be used for inter-ply slipping experiments between the tool and the prepreg.
    Aveiga et al.[52](2023) pull-out Cartridge heaters Pneumatic cylinder It can be tested between prepregs and prepregs, as well as between prepregs and tools.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  Stribeck理论相关模型

    Table  2.   Related model of Stribeck theory

    Model contributor Time Model expression Parameter meaning
    Chow[93] 2002 $ {\mu }_{\mathrm{e}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}}=\dfrac{{\mu }_{c}\cdot \left(a\cdot {N}_{\mathrm{T}}\right)+\left(m\cdot {\dot{\gamma }}^{n-1}\right)\cdot \dot{\gamma }\cdot {A}_{\mathrm{r}}}{{N}_{\mathrm{T}}} $ Where $ {\mu }_{\mathrm{e}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}} $ is the effective coefficient of friction; $ {\mu }_{c} $ the Coulomb friction coefficient; $ {N}_{\mathrm{T}} $ the normal load; $ {A}_{\mathrm{r}} $ the contact area of the fluid film;
    $ a $ portion of Coulomb friction; $ m $ the consistency, $ n $ the Power-Law index; and $ \dot{\gamma } $ the shear rate.
    Gorczyca-Cole et al.[89] 2007 $ {\mu }_{\mathrm{e}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}}={C}_{1}\cdot {H}+{C}_{2}-{S}_{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{t}} $ Where $ {C}_{1} $ and $ {C}_{2} $ is the model coefficient; $ {S}_{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{t}} $ the linear shift term; and H the Hersey number.
    Liu et al.[69] 2021 $ {\mu }_{\mathrm{k}}=0.22\cdot {{\mathrm{e}}}^{27.25\tfrac{\eta \nu }{N}}-7.42\times {10}^{-4}\cdot \mathrm{\Delta }T-0.03 $ Where $ {\mu }_{\mathrm{s}} $ is the static friction coefficient; $ v $ the sliding velocity; $ N $ the normal force; and $ \mathrm{\Delta }T $ the temperature difference.
    $ {\mu }_{\mathrm{s}}=5.02\cdot \left({\dfrac{v}{N}}\right)^{0.12}-6.35\times {10}^{-3}\cdot \mathrm{\Delta }T $
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  经验模型

    Table  3.   Empirical Model

    Model contributor Time Model expression Parameter meaning
    Lin et al.[42] 2006 $ \tau =\text{565}\cdot {10}^{-6}\sqrt[3]{\dfrac{{U}^{1.37}\cdot P}{4.0\cdot {10}^{-6}{a}_{\mathrm{T}}}} $
    $ {a}_{\mathrm{T}}={10}^{-282.85\left(\tfrac{1}{T}-\tfrac{1}{180}\right)} $
    where $ \tau $ is the shear stress in MPa, U the velocity in mm/s, P the normal pressure in MPa and T the temperature in℃.
    Wang et al.[21] 2019 $ \tau ={k}_{1}d\left(d < dy\right) $
    $ \tau ={p}_{1}+{p}_{2}/d\left({d}_{y}\leqslant d\leqslant {d}_{h}\right) $
    $ \tau ={\tau }_{\mathrm{h}}+{k}_{3}\left(d-{d}_{h}\right)\left(d > {d}_{h}\right) $
    where $ \tau $ is the tangential stress; $ d $ the relative slipping displacement; $ {d}_{y} $ the displacement at yield point; $ {d}_{h} $ the displacement at harding point; and $ {k}_{1} $, $ {p}_{1} $, $ {p}_{2} $, $ {k}_{3} $ the model parameters.
    Sourki et al.[94] 2021 $ {\widehat{\mu }}_{{m}_{i}}\left(\alpha \right)={a}_{0}+\displaystyle\sum\nolimits _{n=1}^{N}\left[{a}_{n}\cos\alpha \omega +{b}_{n}\sin\alpha \omega \right] $
    $ {P}^{\text{'}}=P\left[H\left(P-{P}_{p}\right)-H\left(P-{P}_{p+1}\right)\right] $
    $ {\mu }_{\mathrm{i}}={\widehat{\mu }}_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{i}}\left(\alpha \right)+\dfrac{{\widehat{\mu }}_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{i}}\left(\alpha \right)-{\widehat{\mu }}_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{i}}\left(\alpha \right)}{{P}_{\mathrm{p}+1}-{P}_{\mathrm{p}}}\left({P}^{\text{'}}-{P}_{\mathrm{p}+1}\right) $
    Where $ {\widehat{\mu }}_{{\mathrm{m}}_{\mathrm{i}}}\left(\alpha \right) $ is the static (when $ i=s $), or dynamic (when $ i=k $) coefficient of friction at the given pressure level m, as a function of the ply orientation $ \alpha $; $ H $(.) the Heaviside step function; $ {a}_{0} $, $ {a}_{\mathrm{n}} $, $ {b}_{\mathrm{n}} $ and $ \omega $ are the coefficients and period of the Fourier series. Here $ M=\text{3} $ for the given three pressure levels, and $ N=\text{8} $ for the number of Fourier terms used for the fit.
    Li et al.[61] 2023 $ {\tau }_{\mathrm{l}}=Es $
    $ {\tau }_{\mathrm{y}}=A+B*{s}^{C} $
    $ {\tau }_{\mathrm{H}}={H}_{\mathrm{s}}+{\tau }_{0} $
    where $ \tau $ is the tangential stress; $ s $ the sliding distance; $ E $ the elastic parameters; $ A $, $ B $ and $ C $ yield model parameters; and $ {\tau }_{0} $ the Y-axis intercept of the hardening curve.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-03-06
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