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IPMC的材料组成与驱动传感性能研究进展

梅龙祥 郭晓伟 马丽 郭东杰

梅龙祥, 郭晓伟, 马丽, 等. IPMC的材料组成与驱动传感性能研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-20.
引用本文: 梅龙祥, 郭晓伟, 马丽, 等. IPMC的材料组成与驱动传感性能研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-20.
MEI Longxiang, GUO Xiaowei, MA Li, et al. Research progress on IPMC’s material compositions and actuation/sensing properties[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: MEI Longxiang, GUO Xiaowei, MA Li, et al. Research progress on IPMC’s material compositions and actuation/sensing properties[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

IPMC的材料组成与驱动传感性能研究进展

基金项目: 教育部长江学者与创新团队发展计划 (IRT1187);国家自然科学基金 (52275295);中原科技创新领军人才(234200510026)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    郭东杰,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向;智能材料与器件 Email:djguo@zzuli.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332; TB383

Research progress on IPMC’s material compositions and actuation/sensing properties

Funds: Changjiang Scholars and Innovation Team Development program of Ministry of Education (IRT1187); National Natural Science Foundation of China (52275295); Central Plains Scientific and Technological Innovation Leading Talents (234200510026)
  • 摘要: 离子交换聚合物/金属复合材料(IPMC)可作为柔性的驱动器与传感器,用于仿生机械、医疗器械等领域。驱动器是IPMC的主要应用,存在输出功率低、驱动不稳定等问题。传感器是IPMC的重要应用,存在感应电压低、干扰大等缺陷。优化电极、电解质膜、电解质溶液的材料组成有望解决上述问题。驱动器方面,本文梳理了不同聚合物电解质膜的改性技术及驱动特点,重点归纳了电解质膜的成分、结构制约其物理性能(如离子交换当量、含水量、力学性能),进而制约其驱动性能(如位移、力输出)的规律。传感器方面,本文从电极形状、电解质膜结构、电解质离子尺寸三个方面,讨论了IPMC传感性能(如感应电压的幅值、稳定性)的优化技术。论文还展望了IPMC的未来发展方向。

     

  • 图  1  离子交换聚合物/金属复合材料(IPMC)的驱动与传感机制

    Figure  1.  Driving and sensing mechanisms of ion exchange polymer-metal composites (IPMCs)

    图  2  (a) 仿蝠鲼[20];(b) 仿乌龟[21];(c)仿毛毛虫[22];(d) 仿蟑螂[23];(e) 仿蝴蝶[24];(f) 仿蜜蜂[26];(g) 五指机构[28];(h) 十指机构[29];(i) 流体开关[30];(j) 多自由度导管[31];(k) 仿生水仙花[24];(l) 仿连翘花[25];(m) 喉部传感器[32];(n) 智能手套[36]。中间为自制IPMC连续驱动截图

    Figure  2.  (a) bionic manta ray[20]; (b) bionic turtle[22; (c) bionic caterpillar[23]; (d) bionic cockroach[24]; (e) bionic butterfly[24]; (f) bionic bee[26]; (g) five-finger mechanism[28]; (h) ten-finger mechanism[29]; (i) fluid switch[30];(j) multi-freedom catheter[31]; (k) bionic daffodils[24]; (l) bionic forsythia flower[25]; (m) throat sensor[32]; (n) smart gloves[36]. Middle: continuous actuations of a self-made IPMC actuator

    图  3  (a) 三电极电解池;常规IPMC (b, c)和接枝PEDOT后IPMC(d, e)的截面示意图和SEM图[40]

    Figure  3.  (a) three-electrode cell; cross-sectional diagrams and SEM images of IPMC (b, c) and PEDOT-grafted IPMC (d, e) [40]

    图  4  (a) MXene的结构示意图[24];(b) 嵌入PEDOT的MXene[24];(c) MXene夹心的电解质膜[24];(d) 垂直排列CNT的SEM图[43];(e) CNT/Nafion复合材料[43];(f) 复合电极切片的SEM图[43];(g) IPMC的热压组装图[43]

    Figure  4.  (a) MXene flakes[24]; (b) MXene electrode embedded with PEDOT[24]; (c) MXene electrodes sandwiched electrolyte film[24]; (d) SEM image of vertically aligned CNT[43]; (e) schematic diagram of CNT/Nafion composite[43]; (f) SEM image of CNT/Nafion slice[43]; (g) assembly drawing of IPMC by hot-press technique[43]

    图  5  (a) AgNO3被还原为Ag(0),外表面包覆PVP;(b) 利用Dip-coating将PVP@AgNPs涂覆在废IPMC(IPMC-old)表面,得IPMC-repair;(c) 电场下,IPMC-repair稳定驱动[45]

    Figure  5.  (a) AgNO3 was reduced into Ag(0) seed which was coated by the PVP; (b) the PVP@AgNPs was coated on both surfaces of the futile IPMC (IPMC-old), thus obtained IPMC-repair; (c) triggered by the electric field, IPMC-repair generated stable actuations[45]

    图  6  (a) PFSA的分子结构[56];(b) 内管道形成示意图[56];(c) 簇模型[57];(d) 3 D内管道,提取出的3 D离子相图像,显示了离子相的空间分布[58]

    Figure  6.  (a) comparison of molecular structures of Nafion, Aciplex, and Flemion[56]; (b) schematic diagram of formation of the inner channels[56]; (c) cluster model[57]; (d) 3 D inner channels, the extracted 3 D images displayed the spatial distribution of ion phase[58]

    图  7  PVDF的接枝改性[69]

    Figure  7.  PVDF’s modification [69]

    图  8  (a) 含有IL的PVDF/PVP复合膜;(b-d) 去除IL后,复合膜内部的多级内管道;(e) 水和IL驱动下IPMC的位移(蓝),力输出(红)[76]

    Figure  8.  (a) PVDF/PVP composite film containing IL; (b-d) multi inner channels inside the composite film after IL’ removal; (e) Displacement (blue) and force (red) outputs of IPMC driven by water or IL[76]

    图  9  PSU的磺酸化反应[81]

    Figure  9.  Sulfonic reaction of PSU[81]

    图  10  SDPF-b-PSU的合成路线[50]

    Figure  10.  Synthesis route of SDPF-b-PSU[50]

    图  11  磺酸化CS的合成[84]

    Figure  11.  Synthesis of sulfonated CS[84]

    图  12  PVA接枝CBA(上);PVA与SSA的交联(下) [88]

    Figure  12.  CBA grafted PVA (Top); crosslink reaction between PVA and SSA (bottom)[88]

    图  13  (a) WU;(b) IEC;(c) 杨氏模量(上为干膜,下为湿膜);(d) 偏转角;(e) 力输出;A-H依次为Nafion,PVDF,SPS,SPSU,SBC,SCS,SPEEK,SPVA复合物膜。图c中实心数据来自拉伸模量,空心数据来自压缩模量。偏转角来自文献中数据,或驱动截图中的最大偏转部分。力输出为单位母体膜厚度的力输出

    Figure  13.  (a) WU; (b) IEC; (c) Young's modulus (top: dry; bottom: wet); (d) deflection angle; (e) force output. A-H is Nafion, PVDF, SPS, SPSU, SBC, SCS, SPEEK, SPVA composite matrixes, respectively. In Figure c, the solid data originated from the tensile moduli, while the dotted data were from the compression moduli. The deflection angle originated from the data in the literatures, or the maximum deflection sections in the actuation videos. The force outputs were the detected forces divided by the thickness, which were extracted from the data in the literatures

    图  14  压力下的离子分布图。绿色为聚合物链网络,红色的为阳离子,蓝色的为阴离子[99]。工作(感应)电极被放置在凹痕部分下方,参比电极(接地)放置在凝胶的未形变区域

    Figure  14.  Schematic of ion distribution under pressure[99]. Polymer chain network was colored in green, cations in red and anions in blue. The working (induction) electrode was placed below the dent and the reference electrode (ground) in the undeformed area

    图  15  (a) rGO/CNT复合电极的SEM图;(b) 弯曲时IPMC内部的离子分布图;(c) 压力测试[33]

    Figure  15.  (a) SEM image of the rGO/CNT; (b) ion distribution inside IPMC upon bending; (c) loading testing[33]

    图  16  (a) Graphene/quinine复合电极与H+之间的电荷交换;(b) IPMC弯曲前、后的离子分布[102]

    Figure  16.  (a) charge exchange between Graphene/quinine and H+; (b) ion distributions inside the IPMC after/before bending[102]

    图  17  压力传感器的工作原理:(a) 无压力,(b) 施加压力,(c) 解除压力[105]

    Figure  17.  Schematic exhibiting the working principle of pressure sensor: (a) no pressure, (b) applied pressure, (c) removed pressure[105]

    图  18  (a) 空白Nafion膜;(b) 溶胀Nafion膜表层的Pt纳米电极沉积;(c) 褶皱电极的SEM图;(d) 喉部吞咽信号监测[32]

    Figure  18.  (a) Pure Nafion film; (b) Pt electrode deposition onto the swollen Nafion film; (c) SEM image of the pleated Pt electrode; (d) swallowing signal monitoring[32]

    图  19  (a) PVDF-HFP/PAM复合水凝胶示意图;(b) 胶带封装的三明治结构传感器示意图;(c) 传感器对于超声波振动的电压输出响应[107]

    Figure  19.  (a) Schematic diagram of the PVDF-HFP/PAM composite hydrogel; (b) Schematic diagram of sandwich structure sensor wrapped in tape; (c) Voltage output response of sensor to ultrasonic vibration[107]

    图  20  (a) CLiPS传感器示意图;(b) 离子迁移传感机制:压力刺激前,离子对被Cl捕获(左);压力刺激后产生离子对的释放(右)[111]

    Figure  20.  (a) CLiPS based strain sensor; (b) sensing mechanism based on ion migration: ion pairs before pressure stimulation were trapped by CL groups (left), release after stimulation (right)[111]

    表  1  EAP、PZ、SMA的驱动参数比较

    Table  1.   Comparison of driving parameters of EAP, PZ, and SMA

    PropertyEAPPZSMA
    DEPZPCPIPMC
    Strain/%8-3800.1-102-400.5-300.1-0.35-8
    Stress/MPa0.3-384.8-455-2003-7830-110200-700
    Response speedμsμsms-sms-sμs-ss-min
    Density/g/cm31.51.78-81.481-2.56-85-6
    Driving voltage/V>1000>10001-301-750-800-
    Mechanical propertyelasticityelasticitySoftelasticitybrittlenesselasticity
    Reference[12-14][12, 13, 15][12, 15][12, 15-17][13, 16][12, 13, 15]
    Notes: EAP-Electroactive polymer; DE-Dielectric elastomer; PZP-Piezoelectric polymer; CP-Conductive polymer; IPMC-ion exchange polymer-metal composites; PZ-Piezoelectric; SMA-Shape memory alloy
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  电解质膜的参数比较

    Table  2.   Parameter comparisons for different electrolyte films

    IEM IEC/mmol/g IC/mS/cm WU/wt% Y's (Dry、Wet)/MPa Reference
    PFSA 0.62-1.66 10.5-130 6-41 160-450/39-320 [51, 61, 63, 73, 74, 77, 81, 93, 94]
    PFCA 1.44-1.8 110 24 170/- [66, 95, 96]
    PVDF 0.48-4.21 0-114 10-199 712-1400/24-720 [70, 71, 73, 74, 90, 92, 94]
    SPS 0.48-3.11 1.4-120 19-194 710-1360/31-210 [69, 70, 82, 93, 94]
    SPSU 1.32-2.62 3.6-49.6 29-54 800-1260/220-630 [50, 81]
    SBC 1.15-1.63 0-3.7 27-50 350-780/- [97]
    SCS 1.2-2.6 0-0.03 - 820-1960/- [84]
    SPEEK 1.58-2.30 6.2-62 28-40 870-1830/300-550 [74, 86, 94]
    SPVA 0.25-1.8 1.5-28 36-181 266/3.4-140 [88, 91, 94]
    Notes: IEM-Ion exchange membrane; IEC-Ion exchange capacity; IC-Ionic conductivity; WU-Water uptake; Y's -Young's modulus; PFSA-Perfluorosulfonic acid; PFCA-Perfluorocarbonic acid; PVDF-Polyvinylidene difluoride; SPS-Sulfonated polystyrene; SPSU-Sulfonated polysulfone; SBC-Sulfonated bacterial cellulose;SCS-Sulfonated chitosan; SPEEK-Sulfonated polyether ether ketone; SPVA-Sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-24
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