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煤气化细灰理化性质及其电磁波吸收性能

高圣涛 张元春

高圣涛, 张元春. 煤气化细灰理化性质及其电磁波吸收性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(5): 2559-2574. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231026.001
引用本文: 高圣涛, 张元春. 煤气化细灰理化性质及其电磁波吸收性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(5): 2559-2574. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231026.001
GAO Shengtao, ZHANG Yuanchun. Physicochemical properties and electromagnetic wave absorption performance ofcoal gasification fine ash[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(5): 2559-2574. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231026.001
Citation: GAO Shengtao, ZHANG Yuanchun. Physicochemical properties and electromagnetic wave absorption performance ofcoal gasification fine ash[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(5): 2559-2574. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231026.001

煤气化细灰理化性质及其电磁波吸收性能

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231026.001
基金项目: 安徽理工大学高层次引进人才科研启动基金(2023yjrc79);国家自然科学基金(52200139);煤炭安全精准开采国家地方联合工程研究中心(安徽理工大学)开放基金(EC2022018)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    高圣涛,博士,讲师,研究方向为聚合物基纳米复合材料、碳基吸波材料 E-mail: shtgao@aust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TQ536.4;TB332

Physicochemical properties and electromagnetic wave absorption performance ofcoal gasification fine ash

Funds: Scientific Research Foundation for the Introduction of Talent in Anhui University of Science and Technology (2023yjrc79); National Natural Science Foundation of China (52200139); Independent Research Fund of Joint National-Local Engineering Research Centre for Safe and Precise Coal Mining (Anhui University of Science and Technology) (EC2022018)
  • 摘要: 煤气化技术作为煤炭清洁利用的主要途径之一在中国得到快速发展,细灰是煤气化过程中不可避免产生的新型固体废物。国家对绿色、清洁生产和发展循环经济逐步推行,细灰的资源化利用和无害化处理技术成为实现煤气化技术环保效益和经济效益兼得的关键所在。以煤气化细灰为研究对象,对细灰进行干燥、球磨预处理得到中位径为2 μm的样品,利用XRD、Raman、SEM、TEM和XPS等分析测试技术对其晶体结构、微观形貌、组成、分子构造和元素化学态进行表征,并测试了细灰电磁波吸收性能。结果表明:细灰中含有部分石墨化的碳和单质铁,具有较完整的孔隙结构,这为其作为电磁波吸收材料提供了可能性;细灰/石蜡吸波剂在较薄厚度下同时表现出较宽的有效吸收带宽和一定强度的反射损耗,当匹配厚度为1.7 mm时,该吸波剂在15.6 GHz时达到最小反射损耗值,为−17.6 dB,此时有效吸收带宽(反射损耗值≤−10 dB)达到4.2 GHz。此外,雷达散射截面模拟结果表明:该吸波涂层能有效降低完美导体基板的电磁波散射。

     

  • 图  1  细灰产生工艺流程图

    Figure  1.  Process flow chart of fine ash generation

    图  2  FA预处理后的粒径分布

    Figure  2.  Particle size distribution of FA after pretreatment

    图  3  细灰的XRD图谱(a)和拉曼图谱(b)

    ${I_{{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{1}}}{\rm{ + }}{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{ + }}{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{3}}}{\rm{ + }}{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{4}}}}} $/IG—The ratio of D1, D2, D3 and D4 peak intensity to the intensity of G peak;${A_{{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{1}}}{\rm{ + }}{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{ + }}{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{3}}}{\rm{ + }}{{\rm{D}}_{\rm{4}}}}} $/AG—The ratio of D1, D2, D3, D4 peak area and G peak area

    Figure  3.  XRD pattern (a) and Raman spectrum (b) of fine ash

    图  4  细灰的红外图谱

    Figure  4.  FTIR spectrum of fine ash

    图  5  细灰的吸附/脱附等温线(a)、孔径分布(b)、孔表面积分布(c)和孔体积分布(d)

    dV/dlgW—Aperture distribution

    Figure  5.  Adsorption/desorption isotherm (a), pore size distribution (b), pore surface area distribution (c) and pore volume distribution (d) of fine ash

    图  6  细灰的SEM图像((a)~(c))、TEM图像((d)~(g))和选区(h)的元素分布图(i)

    Figure  6.  SEM images ((a)-(c)), TEM images ((d)-(g)) and element distribution (i) of selection (h) of fine ash

    图  7  细灰的SEM图像(a)、选区的EDX元素分布图像((b)~(f))和区域1 (g)、区域2 (h)、区域3 (i)的元素含量图

    Figure  7.  SEM image (a) of fine ash, EDX element distribution images ((b)-(f)) of selected area and regional element content map of region 1 (g), region 2 (h) and region 3 (i)

    图  8  细灰的XPS图谱:(a)全谱图;(b) Fe2p;(c) O1s;(d) C1s;(e) Si2p;(f) Al2p

    Figure  8.  XPS spectra of fine ash: (a) Full spectrum; (b) Fe2p; (c) O1s; (d) C1s; (e) Si2p; (f) Al2p

    图  9  细灰的TG和DTG曲线

    Figure  9.  TG and DTG curves of fine ash

    图  10  细灰的磁滞回线:(a)饱和磁化强度;(b)矫顽力

    M—Magnetization intensity

    Figure  10.  Hysteresis curve of fine ash: (a) Saturation magnetization; (b) Coercivity

    图  11  细灰/石蜡(FA/PF)吸波剂的反射损耗图

    d—Thickness; RL—Reflection loss

    Figure  11.  Reflection loss of fine ash/paraffin absorber (FA/PF)

    图  12  FA/PF吸波剂的相对复介电常数的实部ε′ (a)和虚部ε'' (b)、介电损耗角正切tanδε (c)、相对复磁导率的实部μ′ (d)和虚部μ'' (e)及磁损耗角正切tanδµ (f)

    Figure  12.  Real part ε′ (a) and imaginary part ε'' (b) of complex permittivity, tangent of dielectric loss tanδε (c), real part μ′ (d) and imaginary part μ'' (e) of complex permeability and tangent of magnetic loss tanδµ (f) of FA/PF absorbers

    图  13  40wt%FA/PF吸波剂的反射损耗RL、厚度tm和阻抗模值|Zin/Z0|与频率ƒ的关系曲线

    $t_{\rm{m}}^{{\rm{exp}}} $—Thickness of absorbing agent obtained by experiment; $t_{\rm{m}}^{{\rm{sim}}} $—Thickness of absorbing agent obtained by simulation

    Figure  13.  Relationship between reflection loss RL, thickness tm, impedance modulus |Zin/Z0| and frequency f of 40wt%FA/PF absorber

    图  14  完美导体基板(PEC)和具有FA/PF吸波涂层的完美导体基板的雷达散射截面模拟对比

    RCS—Radar cross-section

    Figure  14.  Comparison of Radar cross-section simulation of perfectly conducting substrate (PEC) and perfectly conducting substrate with FA/PF absorbing coating

    表  1  细灰(FA)的工业分析及元素分析

    Table  1.   Proximate and ultimate analysis of fine ash (FA)

    Sample Proximate analysis/wt% Ultimate analysis/wt%
    Ad Vd FCd Cd Hd O*d Nd St, d
    FA 32.59 1.07 66.34 66.73 0.16 0.24 0.09 0.19
    Notes: d—Dry basis; A—Ash content; V—Volatile matter content; FC—Fixed carbon content; St—Total sulfur content; *—By difference.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  FA浸出毒性测试结果

    Table  2.   Leaching toxicity test results of FA

    Sample Cr(VI)/(mg·L–1) As/(μg·L–1) Hg/(μg·L–1) Ni/(μg·L–1) Cu/(μg·L–1) Zn/(μg·L–1) Cd/(μg·L–1) Pb/(μg·L–1)
    FA ND 0.32 0.27 0.06 0.08 2.29 ND ND
    Lower limit of detectability 0.004 0.10 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03
    Note: ND—The instrument test line was not reached.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  浸出毒性鉴别标准值

    Table  3.   Standard values for identification of leaching toxicity

    Component Limited value of concentration/(mg·L–1)
    Cr(VI) 5
    As 5
    Hg 0.1
    Ni 5
    Cu 100
    Zn 100
    Cd 1
    Pb 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  煤基固废吸波剂的微波吸收性能

    Table  4.   Microwave absorption properties of coal-based solid waste absorber

    Absorbers RLmin/dB fB/GHz Ref.
    Fe/C/coal gangue −27.8 4.7 [44]
    Co/C/coal gangue −39.8 4.7 [45]
    Carbon foam −12.5 5.8 [47]
    Fe/semicoke −39.0 3.9 [48]
    Fine ash −17.6 4.2 This work
    Notes: RLmin—Minimum reflection loss; fB—Effective absorption bandwidth.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-07-30
  • 修回日期:  2023-09-22
  • 录用日期:  2023-10-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-10-26
  • 刊出日期:  2024-05-01

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