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热处理木材性能改良与工艺优化研究进展

蒋军 杜静静 徐信武 梅长彤

蒋军, 杜静静, 徐信武, 等. 热处理木材性能改良与工艺优化研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(4): 1712-1725. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231019.004
引用本文: 蒋军, 杜静静, 徐信武, 等. 热处理木材性能改良与工艺优化研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(4): 1712-1725. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231019.004
JIANG Jun, DU Jingjing, XU Xinwu, et al. Research progress on performance improvement and process optimization of thermally treated wood[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(4): 1712-1725. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231019.004
Citation: JIANG Jun, DU Jingjing, XU Xinwu, et al. Research progress on performance improvement and process optimization of thermally treated wood[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(4): 1712-1725. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231019.004

热处理木材性能改良与工艺优化研究进展

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20231019.004
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (31901248); 中国博士后基金面上资助(2018M642258)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    蒋军,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为木材功能性改良 E-mail: jiangjun@njfu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TS6;TB332

Research progress on performance improvement and process optimization of thermally treated wood

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (31901248); China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018M642258)
  • 摘要: 热处理木材是一种环保无污染且绿色可持续材料。但木材经过热处理会导致其部分力学性能下降、表面润湿性能不足及容易发生光老化等问题。传统的热处理技术所需要的高温环境会产生大量能耗,导致生产成本较高。针对以上热处理木材存在的性能缺陷和生产工艺不足,从热处理木材性能改良和工艺优化两个角度,概述了国内外热处理木材的性能改良研究进展。具体内容涉及热处理木材力学性能改良、表面润湿性能改良、耐光老化性能改良和热处理工艺优化4个方面。分析了热处理木材相关性能改良方法的局限性和改进措施,提出了木材热处理改性应在结合改性机制和实际应用的基础上,对热处理造成的潜在木材性能劣化进行规避,以更好地体现其综合性能优势,提高附加值并拓展应用范围。

     

  • 图  1  木材热处理过程中细胞壁组分变化及其对木材性质的影响[3]

    Figure  1.  Changes of cell wall components in wood during heat treatment and their effects on properties[3]

    图  2  (a) 表层密实化木材的密度分布;(b) 木材抗弯受力分析[30]

    Figure  2.  (a) Density distribution in surface-densified wood; (b) Diagram of wood during bending test[30]

    R—Radius; Δy—Distance change during loading; PD—Peak density

    图  3  (a)热处理木材的光降解机制;热处理木材的耐光老化性能改良方法:(b)有机紫外线吸收剂将光能转化为化学能和热能;(c)无机纳米粒子反射紫外线;(d)抗氧化剂破坏或者消除自由基

    Figure  3.  (a) Mechanism of photodegradation of heat-treated wood; Methods for improving light aging resistance of thermally treated wood: (b) Organic ultraviolet absorbers convert light energy into chemical energy and heat energy; (c) Inorganic nanoparticles reflect ultraviolet light; (d) Antioxidants destroy or eliminate free radicals

    图  4  (a) 热处理过程中半纤维素受热发生脱乙酰化反应产生乙酸的反应式;(b) 酸催化多糖解聚的可能路径[72-73]

    Figure  4.  (a) Formula for deacetylation of hemicellulose to produce acetic acid during heat treatment; (b) Potential routes for acid catalyzed polysaccharide depolymerization[72-73]

    表  1  热处理对木材表面润湿性和漆膜附着力的影响

    Table  1.   Effect of heat treatment on surface wettability and adhesion of wood

    Wood
    species
    Treatment
    condition
    Film adhesion grade Contact angle Ref.
    Waterborne wood coating Oil-based wood coating Diiodomethane Water Ethyl alcohol
    Poplar
    wood
    Control 1 34.9° 71.6° [37]
    160℃, 2 h 1 37.6° 80.7°
    180℃, 2 h 1 37.9° 79.5°
    200℃, 2 h 3 41.1° 87.7°
    220℃, 2 h 3 42.1° 90.3°
    Rubber
    wood
    Control 1 1 62.1° [38]
    200℃, 2 h 2 1 107.1°
    Pometia
    pinnata
    Control 1 43.8° 22.9° [39]
    200℃, 6 h 2 52.9° 46.9°
    Rubber
    wood
    Control 1 2 [31]
    200℃, 2 h 2 1
    Notes: According to the national standard, the adhesion of the paint film can be divided into 6 grades. 1: A little coating falls off at the intersection of the incision, but the affected cross-cutting area is obviously not more than 5%; 2: A little coating falls off at the intersection of the incision, and the affected cross-cutting area is greater than 5%, but not greater than 15%; 3: There is a little coating falls of at the intersection of the incision, and/or partial or total peeling at different parts of the grid, and the affected cross-cutting area is significantly greater than 15%, but not greater than 35%.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  等离子体中粒子能量和木材表面常见化学键的键能

    Table  2.   Particle energy in plasma and bond energy of chemical bonds on wood surfaces

    ParticleParticle energy/eVChemical bondBond energy/eVChemical bondBond energy/eV
    Electron0-20C—H3.2-4.7C=O5.5
    Metastable particle0-2C—C2.6-5.2C=C3.3-7.5
    Ion0.03-0.05C—O0.95-3.0C≡C10
    Photon3-40O—H3.4-5.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  常见热处理工艺条件

    Table  3.   Common conditions used during heat treatment

    Process Source Medium Temperature/℃ Duration/h Drawback Ref.
    Thermowood Finland Water vapour 150-240 0.5-4 [66]
    Plato Netherlands Water vapour 160-190 4-5 Complicated process and
    long duration
    [67]
    Torrefaction France Water vapour (comes from the
    evaporation of water in wood)
    200-240 [68]
    Retification France Nitrogen 210-240 High requirements on
    equipment accuracy
    [68]
    Hot oil treatment Germany Oil
    180-220 2-4 Wood absorbs oil and waste
    oil utilization and disposal difficulties
    [69]
    Smoke heating
    treatment
    Japan Smoke 80-200 Waste gas [70]
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-10
  • 修回日期:  2023-09-27
  • 录用日期:  2023-10-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-10-20
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-15

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