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织物装饰木塑板的制备工艺及性能

周雪莲 郝硕 单伟东 王伟宏 房轶群 刘天

周雪莲, 郝硕, 单伟东, 等. 织物装饰木塑板的制备工艺及性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(4): 1809-1819. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230902.002
引用本文: 周雪莲, 郝硕, 单伟东, 等. 织物装饰木塑板的制备工艺及性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(4): 1809-1819. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230902.002
ZHOU Xuelian, HAO Shuo, SHAN Weidong, et al. Preparation and performance of fabric decorative wood plastic composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(4): 1809-1819. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230902.002
Citation: ZHOU Xuelian, HAO Shuo, SHAN Weidong, et al. Preparation and performance of fabric decorative wood plastic composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(4): 1809-1819. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230902.002

织物装饰木塑板的制备工艺及性能

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230902.002
基金项目: 广东省重点领域研发计划研究项目(2020B0202010008)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王伟宏,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为生物质复合材料 E-mail: weihongwang2001@nefu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Preparation and performance of fabric decorative wood plastic composites

Funds: Guangdong Province Key Field R&D Program Project (2020B0202010008)
  • 摘要: 利用织物装饰木塑复合材料风格多变,能够大大提高木塑复合材料的实用价值。本文开发了一种新型装饰织物贴面技术,将热塑性聚合物铺设在装饰织物表面,与热压板直接接触,从而缩短装饰织物承受高温的时间;并且受热熔化的聚合物透过装饰织物与木塑基材表面的聚合物相熔合,起到固定和保护装饰织物的作用。本文探究了热压温度(140℃、160℃和180℃)、基材中木塑比(6∶4、7∶3和8∶2)和表面聚合物的种类(高密度聚乙烯、低密度聚乙烯和聚乳酸)对饰面木粉/高密度聚乙烯(WF/HDPE)复合材料表面胶合强度、装饰效果、力学性能等的影响;通过红外光谱、扫描电子显微镜等手段对WF/HDPE复合材料和织物的性能变化进行了分析和表征。结果表明:熔融的聚合物能够透过装饰织物纤维空隙,与木塑基材熔合状况良好,制得的装饰复合材料表面光滑平整。综合分析热压温度、基材木塑比和表面聚合物种类的影响,认为当热压温度为160℃、木塑比为7∶3时,表层使用聚乳酸时棉麻织物装饰的WF/HDPE复合基材力学强度最佳,表面胶合强度可达3.64 MPa,弯曲强度达到82.19 MPa。

     

  • 图  1  聚合物置于织物表面的贴面WF/HDPE复合材料的制备过程示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of decorating WF/HDPE composites wit fabric

    图  2  表面胶合强度试件结构

    Figure  2.  Structure of surface bonding strength specimen

    图  3  测试后表面接合情况:(a) 织物与木塑基材分离;(b) 织物与木塑基材未分离

    Figure  3.  Surface jointing after testing: (a) Fabric separated from wood plastic substrate; (b) Fabric is not separated from the wood plastic substrate

    图  4  贴面前后WF/HDPE复合材料与织物的FTIR图谱

    Figure  4.  FTIR spectra of WF/HDPE composites and fabrics before and after decoration

    图  5  织物与WF/HDPE基材的胶合界面分离后的现象:(a) 与基材分离的织物;(b) 织物剥离后在木塑基材(WPC)表面留下的印迹

    Figure  5.  Fabrics and WF/HDPE substrates after the separation of the gluing interface: (a) Separated from the wood plastic composites (WPC) fabric; (b) Tear off the fabric on the surface of the WPC left marks

    图  6  贴面板横截面的扫描电子显微镜观察图:(a) 贴面WF/HDPE复合材料的截面;(b) 表面胶合强度测试后织物纤维埋入木塑基材

    Figure  6.  Microscopic morphology of the cross section of the panel: (a) Cross-section of the decorated WF/HDPE composite; (b) Extent of fabric fiber burial into the wood-plastic substrate after surface gluing strength test

    图  7  界面粘合机制示意图

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of the interfacial bonding mechanism

    图  8  不同热压温度下的纯织物表面形态:(a) 未热压;(b) 140℃;(c) 160℃;(d) 180℃

    Figure  8.  Surface morphologies of fabric at different hot-pressing temperatures: (a) Without hot-pressing; (b) 140℃; (c) 160℃; (d) 180℃

    图  9  测试后织物与木塑复合材料的断裂情况

    Figure  9.  Fracture of fabric and WF/HDPE composites after testing

    图  10  聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)为表层聚合物时织物贴面WF/HDPE复合材料的外观形貌

    Figure  10.  Appearance of fabric decorated WF/HDPE composites when polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the surface layer polymer

    表  1  织物贴面木粉/高密度聚乙烯(WF/HDPE)复合材料的压制条件

    Table  1.   Pressing conditions of fabric decorated wood flour/high-density polyethylene (WF/HDPE) composites

    Pre-pressing temperature
    /℃
    Pre-pressing duration
    /min
    Pre-pressing pressure
    /MPa
    Hot-pressing temperature
    /℃
    Hot-pressing duration/minHot-pressing pressure/MPaCold-pressing pressure/MPa
    140/160/18020.5140/160/18011.51.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  因素和水平表

    Table  2.   Table of factors and levels

    LevelFactor
    ABC
    11406∶4HDPE
    21607∶3LDPE
    31808∶2PLA
    Notes: A is the hot-pressing temperature (℃); B is the ratio of WF to HDPE of substrate; C is the type of polymer on fabric; LDPE—Low density polyethylene; PLA—Polylactic acid.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  织物贴面WF/HDPE复合材料热压工艺方案

    Table  3.   Schemes of hot-pressing process of fabric decorated WF/HDPE composites

    No.ABC
    LevelValueLevelValueLevelType
    1A1140B16∶4C1HDPE
    2A1140B27∶3C2LDPE
    3A1140B38∶2C3PLA
    4A2160B16∶4C2LDPE
    5A2160B27∶3C3PLA
    6A2160B38∶2C1HDPE
    7A3180B16∶4C3PLA
    8A3180B27∶3C1HDPE
    9A3180B38∶2C2LDPE
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  织物贴面WF/HDPE复合材料的表面胶合强度和浸渍剥离长度测试结果

    Table  4.   Surface bonding strength and impregnation/stripping length of fabric decorated WF/HDPE composites

    No.Surface bonding strength/MPaLength of impregnation and peeling/mm
    12.76±0.320
    22.98±0.330
    31.67±0.370
    44.46±0.610
    53.64±0.680
    63.68±0.730
    74.57±0.420
    84.54±0.480
    92.71±0.790
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  织物贴面WF/HDPE复合材料表面胶合强度极差分析

    Table  5.   Surface gluing strength extreme difference analysis of fabric decorated WF/HDPE composites

    FactorSum of indexAverage of indexRange
    K1K2K3k1k2k3
    A 7.41 11.78 11.82 2.47 3.93 3.94 1.47
    B 11.79 11.16 8.06 3.93 3.72 2.69 1.24
    C 10.98 10.15 9.88 3.66 3.38 3.29 0.28
    Notes: Kn—Sum of the test indicators corresponding to the nth level of the factor; kn—Average of Kn; Range=max(k1, k2, k3)−min(k1, k2, k3).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  贴面WF/HDPE复合材料表面胶合强度方差分析

    Table  6.   Analysis of variance for surface gluing strength of decorated WF/HDPE composites

    Sources of variationSjfjMean sum of squareF valueCritical value
    F(fj, fe) (α = 0.05)
    Significance
    A4.2822.145.2219Insignificant
    B2.6521.333.2419Insignificant
    C0.2220.110.2719Insignificant
    Error0.8120.41
    Total7.968
    Notes: Sj—Sum of squares of deviations, which is the sum of the squares of the differences between the individual numbers in a set of data and their arithmetic mean; fj—Degree of freedom; F—Equal to the mean sum of square of the factors divided by the error; fe—Error degree of freedom; α—Given level of significance.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  织物贴面和未贴面WF/HDPE复合材料弯曲性能

    Table  7.   Bending strength of decorated and undecorated WF/HDPE composites

    No.Bending
    strength/MPa
    Bending
    modulus/GPa
    164.91±1.721.79±0.78
    270.89±1.793.15±0.49
    373.76±3.114.61±0.50
    457.76±2.011.52±0.74
    582.19±1.514.34±0.42
    670.40±1.022.90±0.90
    763.42±0.883.44±0.16
    850.97±0.851.94±0.53
    949.65±2.521.64±0.99
    WF/HDPE (6∶4)41.02±1.062.15±0.21
    WF/HDPE (7∶3)46.66±0.572.97±0.11
    WF/HDPE (8∶2)43.30±1.462.93±0.14
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  织物贴面WF/HDPE复合材料弯曲强度极差分析

    Table  8.   Bending strength extreme difference analysis of decorated WF/HDPE composites

    FactorSum of indexAverage of indexRange
    K1K2K3k1k2k3
    A 209.56 210.35 164.04 69.85 70.12 54.68 15.44
    B 186.09 204.05 193.81 62.03 68.02 64.60 5.99
    C 186.28 178.30 219.37 62.09 59.43 73.12 13.69
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  织物贴面WF/HDPE复合材料弯曲强度方差分析

    Table  9.   Analysis of variance for flexural strength of fabric decorated WF/HDPE composites

    Sources of variationSjfjMean sum of squareF valueCritical value
    F(fj, fe) (α = 0.05)
    Significance
    A 468.59 2 234.30 30.77 19 Significant
    B 54.12 2 27.06 0.41 19 Insignificant
    C 316.16 2 158.08 14.01 19 Insignificant
    Error 84.48 2 42.24
    Total 923.35 8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  热压温度对织物颜色变化影响

    Table  10.   Effect of hot-pressing temperature on fabric color change

    Hot-pressed temperature/℃L*a*b*ΔE*
    FabricsUnheated87.912.99−1.03
    14089.15±0.742.49±0.07 1.33±0.822.71±0.99
    16088.69±1.102.13±0.39 3.70±1.584.87±0.95
    18086.12±0.812.31±0.07 8.55±0.699.77±0.79
    Notes: L*—Lightness; a*—Reddish-green degree of the color; b*—Yellowish-blue degree of color; ΔE*—Chromatic aberration of the sample.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  11  贴面前后WF/HDPE复合材料界面胶合性能和弯曲性能的测试结果

    Table  11.   Test results of interfacial bonding and flexural properties of WF/HDPE composites before and after decoration

    WF∶HDPESurface bonding
    strength/MPa
    Length of impregnated
    peel/mm
    Bending
    strength/MPa
    Bending
    modulus/GPa
    6∶4Undecorated41.02 ±1.062.15 ±0.21
    Decorated2.50 ±0.41056.54 ±1.381.28 ±0.13
    7∶3Undecorated46.66 ±0.572.97 ±0.11
    Decorated2.13 ±0.67067.58 ±1.192.39 ±0.04
    下载: 导出CSV
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    [30] ZHOU X, SHEN T, SUN Y, et al. Improve the bonding between wood veneer and wood fiber/high-density polyethylene composite board for decoration[J]. Polymer Composites,2022,43(4):2163-2174. doi: 10.1002/pc.26529
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-02
  • 修回日期:  2023-08-07
  • 录用日期:  2023-08-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-09-04
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-15

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