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双碳结构增强硅橡胶智能复合材料的力电响应

万帮伟 杨洋 赵艳芳

万帮伟, 杨洋, 赵艳芳. 双碳结构增强硅橡胶智能复合材料的力电响应[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(4): 1852-1861. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230817.002
引用本文: 万帮伟, 杨洋, 赵艳芳. 双碳结构增强硅橡胶智能复合材料的力电响应[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(4): 1852-1861. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230817.002
WAN Bangwei, YANG Yang, ZHAO Yanfang. Mechanical and electrical response of silicon rubber intelligent composite materials reinforced by dual carbon structure[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(4): 1852-1861. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230817.002
Citation: WAN Bangwei, YANG Yang, ZHAO Yanfang. Mechanical and electrical response of silicon rubber intelligent composite materials reinforced by dual carbon structure[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(4): 1852-1861. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230817.002

双碳结构增强硅橡胶智能复合材料的力电响应

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230817.002
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(11962009)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    杨洋,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为微纳米力学、新型土木工程材料等领域 E-mail: yangyang0416@kust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Mechanical and electrical response of silicon rubber intelligent composite materials reinforced by dual carbon structure

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (11962009)
  • 摘要: 可拉伸应变传感器在减隔震领域具有广阔的应用前景,然而,研发低成本和高稳定性可拉伸应变传感器仍然是一个巨大挑战。本文采用开炼法制备出多壁碳纳米管(MWCNT)-导电炭黑(CB)/甲基乙烯基硅橡胶(VMQ)导电纳米复合材料。研究MWCNT与CB之间的协同效应对复合材料分散性能、导电性能、力学性能及电阻-应变响应性能影响。结果表明:添加CB后复合材料力学性能提升,具有较低的渗流阈值(1.24wt%),5000次循环加载-卸载过程中表现出优异的电阻-应变响应稳定性。此外,MWCNT-CB/VMQ复合材料相比于MWCNT/VMQ、CB/VMQ复合材料在电阻-应变响应性能中没有出现肩峰现象,同时解释了肩峰现象机制。通过SEM发现复合材料中MWCNT和CB均匀分布及形成的协同效应是低阈值和稳定电阻-应变响应性能的重要原因。通过隧道效应理论模型解释了电阻-应变响应机制。该复合材料对减隔震结构应变监测具有巨大潜力。

     

  • 图  1  (a) 导电硅橡胶复合材料制备流程;(b) 复合材料在原始、拉伸、弯曲、扭转下的图像;(c) 测试装置

    Figure  1.  (a) Preparation process of conductive silicone rubber composite; (b) Photos of composite material under original, stretching, bending and torsion; (c) Test diagram

    MWCNT—Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; CB—Carbon black; VMQ—Methyl vinyl silicone rubber; HPMS—Hydroxyl silicone oil; DBPMH—2, 5-dimethyl-2, 5-bis(tert-butyl peroxy)hexane; LMBG—Two-stage vulcanization

    图  2  (a) 多壁碳纳米管(MWCNT)-导电炭黑(CB)/甲基乙烯基硅橡胶(VMQ)复合材料在不同MWCNT含量下的应力-应变曲线;((b)~(d)) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ、MWCNT/VMQ、CB/VMQ复合材料的拉伸强度、断裂伸长率、杨氏模量;(e) 3种复合材料在应变为200%下的循环应力-应变曲线

    Figure  2.  (a) Stress-strain curves of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-conductive carbon black (CB)/methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ) composites with different MWCNT contents; ((b)-(d)) Tensile strength, elongation at break, and Young's modulus of MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ、MWCNT/VMQ and CB/VMQ composites; (e) Cycle stress-strain curves of three composites under 200% strain

    S1, S2, S3—Area of hysteretic curves

    图  3  (a) 3种复合材料的体积电导率σ;(b) 3种复合材料渗流阈值拟合曲线;(c) 3种复合材料在应变为150%下的电阻-应变响应曲线和变形灵敏度(GF)值;(d) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ复合材料和其他先前报道的应变传感器在最大应变下的最高GF的比较

    Figure  3.  (a) Volume conductivity σ of three composites; (b) Fitting curves of seepage threshold of three composites; (c) Resistance-strain response curves and GF values of the three composites at 150% strain; (d) Comparison of the maximum GF at maximum strain of MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ composites with other previously reported strain sensors

    w—Conductive filler content; φ—Percolation threshold; GF—Sensitivity; ΔR/R0—Resistance; ε—Strain

    图  4  复合材料在应变为30%下的电阻-应变响应

    Figure  4.  Resistance-strain response of composites at 30% strain

    图  5  CB9wt%/VMQ (a)、MWCNT4wt%/VMQ (b)、MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ (c)复合材料在应变为30%下电阻-应变响应第7次循环加载-卸载

    Figure  5.  CB9wt%/VMQ (a), MWCNT4wt%/VMQ (b), MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ (c) composites respond to the 7th cyclic loading-unloading under the strain of 30%

    IH1, IH2, IH3—Shoulder peak phenomenon area of CB9wt%/VMQ, MWCNT4wt%/VMQ, and MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ, respectively

    图  6  (a) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ复合材料在不同应变下的电阻响应;(b) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ复合材料在应变为5%、速率1000 mm/min−1下的响应时间;(c) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ复合材料在不同速率下的电阻响应;((d)~(g)) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ复合材料在应变为10%、20%、30%、40%下500次电阻响应;(h) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ复合材料在应变为50%下的5000次电阻响应

    Figure  6.  (a) Resistance responses of MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ composites under different strains; (b) Response time of MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ composites at a strain of 5% and a rate of 1000 mm/min−1; (c) Resistance responses of MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ composites at different rates; ((d)-(g)) MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ composites have 500 times resistance responses at strain of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%; (h) 5000 times resistance responses of MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ composites at 50% strain

    图  7  CB9wt%/VMQ复合材料((a), (b))、MWCNT4wt%/VMQ复合材料((c), (d))和MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ复合材料((e), (f)) 的SEM图像

    Figure  7.  SEM images of CB9wt%/VMQ composite ((a), (b)), MWCNT4wt%/VMQ composite ((c), (d)) and MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ composite ((e), (f))

    图  8  ((a)~(d)) MWCNT-CB/VMQ复合材料的导电网络在拉伸过程的演化机制;MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ (e)、CB9wt%/VMQ (f)、MWCNT4wt%/VMQ (g)复合材料在拉伸过程实验结果与理论结果的电阻

    Figure  8.  ((a)-(d)) Evolution mechanism of the conductive network of the MWCNT-CB/VMQ composites during the tensile process; Experimental and theoretical resistance of MWCNT2wt%-CB/VMQ (e), CB9wt%/VMQ (f), MWCNT4wt%/VMQ (g) composites

    表  1  不同导电填料含量的ΔR/R0-应变曲线拟合后的参数

    Table  1.   Parameters of resistance ΔR/R0-strain curves fitting for different conductive filler contents

    Filler content$ {m} $$ {{ \varepsilon }}_{\text{c}} $$ {{n}}_{\text{s}} $
    MWCNT4wt%
    MWCNT2wt%-CB
    CB9wt%
    2.55
    14.56
    7.08
    3.92
    6.55
    4.96
    −1.81
    −3.62
    −3.48
    Notes: m—Aconstant related to the fractal structure of the network; εc—Constant which can be interpreted as the yield strain; ns—Scaling exponent.
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-21
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-16
  • 录用日期:  2023-08-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-08-21
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-15

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