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纤维增强复合材料自动化成型中织物变形研究进展

梅鸣 周珺晗 韦凯

梅鸣, 周珺晗, 韦凯. 纤维增强复合材料自动化成型中织物变形研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(5): 2507-2524. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220909.001
引用本文: 梅鸣, 周珺晗, 韦凯. 纤维增强复合材料自动化成型中织物变形研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(5): 2507-2524. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220909.001
MEI Ming, ZHOU Junhan, WEI Kai. Advance of fabric deformation in automated forming of fiber reinforced composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(5): 2507-2524. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220909.001
Citation: MEI Ming, ZHOU Junhan, WEI Kai. Advance of fabric deformation in automated forming of fiber reinforced composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(5): 2507-2524. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220909.001

纤维增强复合材料自动化成型中织物变形研究进展

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220909.001
基金项目: 汽车车身先进设计制造国家重点实验室开放基金(52175012);湖南省自然科学基金(2021JJ30085);湖南省科技创新人才(2021RC30306)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    韦凯,博士,副教授,博士生导师,研究方向为轻量化多功能复合材料与结构 E-mail: weikai@hnu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Advance of fabric deformation in automated forming of fiber reinforced composites

Funds: State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body (52175012); Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2021JJ30085); Science and Technology Innovation Program of Hunan Province (2021RC30306)
  • 摘要: 纤维增强树脂基复合材料具有高比强度和高比刚度等优异特性,被广泛应用于汽车领域以实现汽车轻量化。然而,纤维织物的多尺度特性使其在复杂形状的车身零部件成型中变形机制十分复杂,极易产生成型缺陷,削弱成型后的复合材料力学性能。表征织物变形特性,揭示织物变形机制,是准确预测织物复杂形状成型,指导织物成型工艺参数合理设计的重要基础。因此,本文针对织物在成型过程中的压缩、剪切、弯曲和滑移4种关键变形特性及在复杂几何形状中成型特性的研究进展进行综述,详细介绍了织物上述变形和成型特性的研究方法及研究热点。本文将为织物的变形机制研究、复杂形状成型精准预测和工艺参数合理设计提供指导,推动复合材料在汽车领域中的大规模应用。

     

  • 图  1  压缩过程中织物嵌套(a)[6]及纤维束弯曲和扁平变形(b)[7]

    Figure  1.  Fabric nesting (a) and yarn bending and yarn flatting (b) in compaction process

    图  2  (a) 压缩变形实验装置[9];压缩实验过程:(b) 压缩-松弛-回弹;(c)压缩-蠕变-回弹[10]

    T—Fabric thickness

    Figure  2.  (a) Experimental setups of fabric compaction[9]; Compaction processes including: (b) Compression-relaxation-recovery; (c) Compression-creep-recovery[10]

    图  3  织物压缩变形后内部结构表征:(a)横截面光学表征[13];(b)内部结构计算机断层扫描(CT)重构[17]

    Figure  3.  Internal structure characterization of fabric after compaction process: (a) Microscopic optical characterization of cross section[13]; (b) Reconstruction of internal structure by computed tomography (CT)[17]

    图  4  织物压缩变形过程中内部结构表征:(a)光谱共焦扫描[18];(b)原位X射线计算断层扫描(XCT)[19]

    Figure  4.  Internal structure characterization of fabric in the compaction process: (a) Chromatic confocal scanner[18]; (b) In-situ X-ray computed tomography (XCT)[19]

    图  5  基于XCT扫描重构的织物细观有限元(FE)压缩变形模拟过程[20]

    Vf—Volume fraction of fiber

    Figure  5.  Procedure of finite element (FE) simulation of meso fabric compaction based on reconstruction of XCT[20]

    图  6  织物压缩变形黏弹性理论模型示意图 [9, 30]

    E—Elastic modulus; τ—Relaxation time; η—Viscosity coefficient

    Figure  6.  Schematics of viscoelastic model for fabric compaction[9, 30]

    图  7  织物剪切变形实验示意图:(a)相框剪切;(b)偏轴拉伸[35]

    A, B and C—Three kinds of deformation regions, respectively; FN—Load

    Figure  7.  Schematics of fabric shear tests: (a) Picture frame test; (b) Bias extension test[35]

    图  8  相框剪切实验中边界夹持方式:(a)传统夹板[37];((b), (c))针刺夹具[38-39]

    Figure  8.  Clamp methods in boundary of picture frame test: (a) Traditional clamp[37]; ((b),(c)) Needle clamp[38-39]

    图  9  不同结构织物细观变形机制示意图:(a)平纹机织织物[35];(b) ±45°双轴向无屈曲织物[43];(c)单轴向无屈曲织物[45]

    θ—Angle between the yarns

    Figure  9.  Schematics of meso deformation mechanism for fabrics with different architectures: (a) Plain woven fabric[35]; (b) ±45° biaxial pillar non-crimp fabric[43]; (c) Unidirectional non-crimp fabric[45]

    图  10  可调织物张力的新型剪切特性测试夹具[35, 38-39, 48-50]

    Figure  10.  Novel fixtures of fabric shear testing with adjustable fabric tension[35, 38-39, 48-50]

    图  11  (a) Peirce悬臂梁法示意图[60];(b)弯曲刚度对织物成型模拟时的褶皱缺陷差异的影响[61];(c)基于光学测量的悬臂梁方法[65]

    Lb—Bending length; L1—Slat

    Figure  11.  (a) Schematic of Peirce's cantilever test[60]; (b) Effect of bending rigidity on wrinkle defect in fabric forming simulation[61]; (c) Cantilever test based on optical measurement[65]

    图  12  不同测试方法下的双轴向无屈曲织物正负弯曲特性:(a) Peirce悬臂梁法;(b)基于光学辅助的悬臂梁法[62]

    ϕ—Slope angle; Mpos—Positive bending moment; Mneg—Negtive bending moment

    Figure  12.  Positive and negative bending behavior of biaxial non-crimp fabric: (a) Peirce's cantilever test; (b) Cantilever test based on optical measurement[62]

    图  13  温度(a)和加载速率(b)对织物弯曲特性的影响[71]

    RT—Room temperature

    Figure  13.  Effects of temperature (a) and loading rate (b) on bending behavior of fabric[71]

    图  14  摩擦测试装置示意图[74]

    U—Displacement; Ff—Friction force; N—Pressure

    Figure  14.  Schematics of friction testing setup[74]

    图  15  (a)织物相对滑移示意图;(b)呈震荡趋势的摩擦力-位移曲线[79]

    F—Contact force; V—Sliding velocity; L—Periodic displacement

    Figure  15.  (a) Schematic of relative sliding between fabrics; (b) Oscillating friction-displacement curve[79]

    图  16  织物成型实验:(a)半球成型;(b)双圆顶成型;(c)方盒成型;(d)四面体成型[4, 86-88]

    Figure  16.  Fabric forming experiments: (a) Hemisphere; (b) Double dome; (c) Box; (d) Tetrahedron[4, 86-88]

    图  17  织物各类成型缺陷:(a)褶皱[61];(b)纤维束屈曲[79];(c)纤维束阻塞[96]

    Figure  17.  Various forming defects of fabric: (a) Wrinkle[61]; (b) Yarn buckling[79]; (c) Yarn jamming[96]

    图  18  层间摩擦系数提高显著加剧多层织物成型的褶皱缺陷[97]

    μ—Frictionc coefficient

    Figure  18.  Remarkable intensification of wrinkle defect with improvement of friction coefficient in multilayered fabric forming[97]

    图  19  成型张力施加方法:(a)压边块分块及形状优化[98];(b) 3D打印圆锥压边环[4];(c)弹簧单元优化[100]

    Figure  19.  Methods to applied fabric tension: (a) Multi-part blank holder and shape optimization[98]; (b) Fine-turned cone blank holder manufactured by 3D print[4]; (c) Spring element optimization[100]

    图  20  (a)织物层间插入玻璃纤维毡有效消除成型缺陷[104];(b)织物层间插入安装有高频振动元件的金属板的概念图[105]

    F—Tension

    Figure  20.  (a) Remarkable reduction of forming defect when inserting glass mat between fabric layers[104]; (b) Concept of a metal plate with a high frequency vibration element inserted between the fabric layers[105]

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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-18
  • 修回日期:  2022-08-18
  • 录用日期:  2022-09-01
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  • 刊出日期:  2023-05-15

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