The purpose is to reveal the deterioration law of mechanical properties for elastomer composites at different service environments and promote their popularization and application in the field of solvent-free coatings. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene/elastomer (UHMWPE/EL) composites were prepared. Application environments such as hydrothermal aging, low-temperature embrittlement and climate aging were simulated, and the evolution process and laws of various mechanical properties for elastomer and its composites at different environments were studied. The damage status of shape auto restore ability for composites at different deformations and temperatures was evaluated. Finally, the durability and environmental adaptability of composites were proved. The results show that after continuous exposure for 7 days or 81 hours at different application environments, the retention rates of mechanical properties for UHMWPE/EL composites are more than 90%, which meet the requirements of specifications. And the mechanical properties of composites decrease 15%−20% after being exposed to hygrothermal environment, cold environment and weathering environment for 30 days. The composites have obvious thermal stability and automatic shape recovery ability, and the recovery rates at different deformation modes of tension, bending and torsion are over 90%.