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轻质高导电金属化碳纳米管薄膜的制备及其雷击防护性能

席佳琦 戴亚光 夏雷 王玉琼 杨文刚 吕卫帮

席佳琦, 戴亚光, 夏雷, 等. 轻质高导电金属化碳纳米管薄膜的制备及其雷击防护性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(1): 196-206. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230427.002
引用本文: 席佳琦, 戴亚光, 夏雷, 等. 轻质高导电金属化碳纳米管薄膜的制备及其雷击防护性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 41(1): 196-206. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230427.002
XI Jiaqi, DAI Yaguang, XIA Lei, et al. Preparation and lightning strike protection properties of lightweight high conductive metallized carbon nanotube film[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(1): 196-206. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230427.002
Citation: XI Jiaqi, DAI Yaguang, XIA Lei, et al. Preparation and lightning strike protection properties of lightweight high conductive metallized carbon nanotube film[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2024, 41(1): 196-206. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230427.002

轻质高导电金属化碳纳米管薄膜的制备及其雷击防护性能

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20230427.002
基金项目: 科技部重点研发计划(2022YFA1205400)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    杨文刚,硕士,工程师,研究方向为纳米复合材料 E-mail: wgyang2019@sinano.ac.cn

    吕卫帮,博士,研究员,博士生导师,研究方向为纳米复合材料 E-mail: wblv2013@sinano.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB333

Preparation and lightning strike protection properties of lightweight high conductive metallized carbon nanotube film

Funds: National Key Basic Research Program of China (2022YFA1205400)
  • 摘要: 碳纤维增强树脂基复合材料(CFRP)导电性差,无法满足飞机航行过程中的雷击防护需求。金属化碳纳米管薄膜具备轻质、高导电、高载流的特点,可应用于复合材料雷击防护。采用电化学沉积工艺成功制备了一种碳纳米管(CNT)/Cu复合薄膜,并对其微观结构、电学性能及载流失效行为进行了表征分析。结果表明,CNT/Cu复合薄膜柔性较好,具有明显的梯度结构,铜的含量在薄膜厚度方向上逐渐递减。复合薄膜电导率与Cu同一量级,比电导率为Cu的2倍,载流量及比载流量分别为商用铜网的1.4倍和7倍。复合薄膜中的CNT抑制了Cu在大载流作用下电迁移的发生,进而延长其载流失效时间。基于CNT/Cu复合薄膜制备了CFRP雷击防护试样,进行人工模拟雷击试验及高精度损伤分析,评估雷击防护效果。与商用铜网雷击防护材料相比,CNT/Cu复合薄膜质量减轻61%,且表现出更为优异的雷击防护性能。

     

  • 图  1  (a) 浮动催化化学气相沉积法(FCCVD)制备的碳纳米管(CNT)薄膜;(b) 电化学沉积装置示意图

    Figure  1.  (a) Carbon nanotube (CNT) film prepared by floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD); (b) Schematic diagram of electrochemical deposition device

    图  2  (a) 人工模拟雷击测试装置;(b) 飞行器雷电效应2A区电流分量B波形;(c) 电流分量D波形;(d) 电流分量C*波形

    Figure  2.  (a) Artificial simulation lightning strike test device; (b) Waveform of current component B of aircraft lightning effect zone 2A; (c) Waveform of current component D; (d) Waveform of current component C*

    图  3  (a) 电化学沉积法制备的CNT/Cu复合薄膜试样;CNT/Cu复合薄膜上表面 (b) 及下表面 (c) 的SEM图像;复合薄膜截面微观形貌 (d) 及对应EDS元素表征 (e);(f) 复合薄膜截面Cu元素分布示意图

    Figure  3.  (a) CNT/Cu composite film sample prepared by electrochemical deposition; SEM images of upper (b) and lower surfaces (c) of CNT/Cu composite film; Micromorphology of CNT/Cu composite film section (d) and its elemental analysis by EDS (e); (f) Schematic diagram of Cu element distribution of composite film section

    图  4  CNT/Cu复合薄膜与铜网的电导率比较

    Figure  4.  Comparison of electrical conductivity between CNT/Cu composite film and Cu mesh

    图  5  CNT/Cu复合薄膜与铜网的载流量比较

    Figure  5.  Comparison of ampacity between CNT/Cu composite film and Cu mesh

    CCC—Current-carrying capacity

    图  6  CNT/Cu复合薄膜 ((a)~(d)) 及铜网 ((e)~(h)) 载流失效时的电迁移

    Figure  6.  Electromigration of CNT/Cu ((a)-(d)) and Cu mesh ((e)-(h)) current-carrying failure

    图  7  CNT/Cu复合薄膜载流失效断口形貌及元素分析:((a), (b)) 复合薄膜断口处SEM图像;((c), (d)) 图7(b)中对应位置元素线扫描及面扫描结果

    Figure  7.  Fracture morphology and elemental analysis of current carrying failure of CNT/Cu composite films: ((a), (b)) SEM images of composite film fracture; ((c), (d)) Line scan and map scan results of corresponding position elements in Fig. 7(b)

    图  8  CFRP试样截面形貌及界面形态:((a), (d), (g)) 商用铜网防护(Cu mesh-CFRP);((b), (e), (h)) 磁控溅射CNT/Cu复合薄膜防护(MS CNT/Cu-CFRP);((c), (f), (i)) 电沉积 CNT/Cu 复合薄膜防护(EP CNT/Cu-CFRP) (由上至下分别为3D共聚焦显微图、金相图、SEM图像)

    Figure  8.  Section morphology and interface morphology of CFRP samples: ((a), (d), (g)) Commercial copper mesh (Cu mesh-CFRP); ((b), (e), (h)) CNT/Cu composite films produced by magnetron sputtering (MS CNT/Cu-CFRP); ((c), (f), (i)) CNT/Cu composite films produced by electrodeposition (EP CNT/Cu-CFRP ) (From top to bottom are 3D confocal micrograph, metallographic diagram, SEM images)

    图  9  人工模拟雷击测试后试样表面损伤形貌:(a) NP-CFRP;(b) Cu mesh-CFRP;(c) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP;(d) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP

    Figure  9.  Surface damage morphologies after artificial simulated lightning strike tests: (a) NP-CFRP; (b) Cu mesh-CFRP; (c) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP; (f) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP

    图  10  雷击中心点形貌表征:((a), (d)) Cu mesh-CFRP;((b), (e)) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP;((c), (f)) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP

    Figure  10.  Morphological characterization of lightning strike center point: ((a), (d)) Cu mesh-CFRP; ((b), (e)) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP; ((c), (f)) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP

    图  11  试样雷击试验后计算机断层(CT)扫描整体形貌:(a) NP-CFRP;(b) Cu mesh-CFRP;(c) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP;(d) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP;随深度变化10%、20%、40%的剖面损伤形貌: ((a1)~(a3)) NP-CFRP;((b1)~(b3)) Cu mesh-CFRP;((c1)~(c3)) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP;((d1)~(d3)) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP

    Figure  11.  Computed tomography (CT) scanning of samples overall damage morphology after lightning strike test: (a) NP-CFRP; (b) Cu mesh-CFRP; (c) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP; (d) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP; Profile damage morphology varies by 10%, 20% and 40% with depth: ((a1)-(a3)) NP-CFRP; ((b1)-(b3)) Cu mesh-CFRP; ((c1)-(c3)) MS CNT/Cu-CFRP; ((d1)-(d2)) EP CNT/Cu-CFRP

    图  12  试样雷击试验后CT扫描截面图

    Figure  12.  CT scanning cross-section of samples after lightning strike test

    D—Thickness of the undamaged area after lightning strike

    图  13  试样雷击防护机制示意图

    Figure  13.  Schematic diagram of lightning strike protection mechanism for samples

    IH—Horizontal current; IV—Vertical current

    表  1  商用铜网参数

    Table  1.   Commercial copper mesh parameters

    ProjectParameter
    Long intercept2.54 mm±5%
    Short intercept1.40 mm±6%
    Areal density(245±20) g/m2
    Long intercept direction resistance≤2.10 mΩ
    Short intercept direction resistance≤6.30 mΩ
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  雷击防护CFRP试样电导率测试结果

    Table  2.   Conductivity test results of CFRP samples for lightning strike protection

    DirectionSampleConductivity/(S·m−1)
    X NP-CFRP 23.14±3.47
    Cu mesh-CFRP 31.02±2.88
    MS CNT/Cu-CFRP 55.82±6.55
    EP CNT/Cu-CFRP 99.81±7.13
    Y NP-CFRP 8.57±0.61
    Cu mesh-CFRP 19.62±2.36
    MS CNT/Cu-CFRP 32.19±2.66
    EP CNT/Cu-CFRP 62.87±9.47
    Z NP-CFRP 0.79±0.06
    Cu mesh-CFRP 1.30±0.07
    MS CNT/Cu-CFRP 1.65±0.25
    EP CNT/Cu-CFRP 2.38±0.35
    Notes: NP-CFRP—Completely unprotected carbon fiber reinforced composite;MS—Magnetron sputtering; EP—Electrodeposition.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  4组CFRP试样雷击测试后损伤深度分析

    Table  3.   Analysis of damage depth of four groups of CFRP samples after lightning strike test

    SampleTotal thickness/mmProtective layer thickness/mmTotal damage thickness/mmTotal damage rate/%Damage rate of carbon
    fiber structural layer/%
    NP-CFRP3.83701.45637.9537.95
    Cu mesh-CFRP4.3720.2180.67115.3510.91
    MS CNT/Cu-CFRP3.8700.0550.370 9.56 8.26
    EP CNT/Cu-CFRP3.8500.0500.050 1.30 0
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-02-27
  • 修回日期:  2023-03-28
  • 录用日期:  2023-04-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-04-27
  • 刊出日期:  2024-01-01

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