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碳纳米管/有机硅树脂吸波气凝胶及其复合材料的制备与性能

王晓岚 柳云钊 孔磊 师建军 杨云华

王晓岚, 柳云钊, 孔磊, 等. 碳纳米管/有机硅树脂吸波气凝胶及其复合材料的制备与性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-10.
引用本文: 王晓岚, 柳云钊, 孔磊, 等. 碳纳米管/有机硅树脂吸波气凝胶及其复合材料的制备与性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2024, 42(0): 1-10.
WANG Xiaolan, LIU Yunzhao, KONG Lei, et al. Preparation and properties of carbon nanotubes/ silicon microwave absorbing aerogel and its composite[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: WANG Xiaolan, LIU Yunzhao, KONG Lei, et al. Preparation and properties of carbon nanotubes/ silicon microwave absorbing aerogel and its composite[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

碳纳米管/有机硅树脂吸波气凝胶及其复合材料的制备与性能

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    孔磊,博士,研究员,硕士生导师,研究方向为树脂基功能复合材料 E-mail: polymz@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TB332, TB34

Preparation and properties of carbon nanotubes/ silicon microwave absorbing aerogel and its composite

  • 摘要: 基于溶胶-凝胶方法,制备不同比例多壁碳纳米管改性有机硅树脂(CNT/OSR)气凝胶和针刺石英纤维增强CNT/有机硅树脂气凝胶(QF/SC)复合材料,探究CNT含量对有机硅气凝胶及其复合材料的微观结构、防热性能和吸波性能的影响规律。研究结果表明:进行物理修饰后的CNT与有机硅树脂表现出良好的相容性,构建起了微导电、导热通道;改性后树脂的热稳定性有了明显提升,当CNT的质量分数为有机硅树脂的15wt%时,Td10提升111.1℃;QF/SC复合材料热导率在0.054~0.075 W/(m·K)之间,经600 s表面温度达1000℃的烧蚀后,最大背温为145.1℃;引入碳纳米管的QF/SC复合材料介电性能显著提高,实测8~18 GHz内反射率峰值和有效带宽分别达到−29 dB和3 GHz。该项工作有望在航空航天科学和工业领域实现新的应用。

     

  • 图  1  碳纳米管改性有机硅树脂(CNT/OSR)气凝胶及针刺石英纤维增强碳纳米管/有机硅树脂气凝胶(QF/SC)复合材料的制备流程示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of preparation process of fabrication of carbon nanotubes/organic silicon resin (CNT/OSR) aerogel and quartz fibre-reinforced CNT/silicon (QF/SC) composite

    图  2  (a)室温静置一周后未进行改性和改性后的碳纳米管分散液;(b) QF/SC复合材料示意图

    Figure  2.  (a) unmodified and modified CNT dispersion after stand at room temperature for a week, (b) picture of QF/SC composites

    图  3  有机硅树脂固化前后的FTIR图谱

    Figure  3.  FTIR spectra of silicone resin

    图  4  (a) CNT, (b) S-0, (c) SC-2, (d) SC-5, (e) SC-10, (f) SC-15样品的微观形貌图像

    Figure  4.  Micro morphological images of (a) CNT, (b) S-0, (c) SC-2, (d) SC-5, (e) SC-10, (f) SC-15 samples

    图  5  不同CNT/OSR气凝胶的孔径分布图

    Figure  5.  Pore diameter and its distribution curves of CNT/OSR aerogels

    图  6  不同CNT/OSR气凝胶的TGA和DTG曲线

    Figure  6.  TGA and DTG curves of CNT/OSR aerogels

    图  7  不同QF/SC复合材料的介电常数的(a)实部、(b)虚部和(c)介电损耗正切

    Figure  7.  (a) Real part and (b) imaginary part of the complex permittivity and (c) dielectric loss tangents for QF/SC composites

    图  8  (a) QF/SC-2、(b) QF/SC-5、(c) QF/SC-10、(d) QF/SC-15复合材料反射损耗2 D、3 D示意图

    Figure  8.  Reflection loss 2 D and 3 D diagram of (a) QF/SC-2、(b) QF/SC-5、(c) QF/SC-10、(d) QF/SC-15 composites

    图  9  不同QF/SC复合材料在8 mm厚度8~18 GHz波段内的反射损耗曲线

    Figure  9.  Reflection loss plot of QF/SC composites at 8 mm thickness in 8~18 GHz

    图  10  碳纳米管改性有机硅气凝胶及复合材料吸波机制示意图

    Figure  10.  Schematic diagram of MA mechanism of carbon nanotube modified silicone aerogel

    图  11  QF/SC-5复合材料烧蚀考核表温和背温曲线

    Figure  11.  Surface and back temperature curves of QF/SC-5 composites during ablation test

    图  12  高温烧蚀后QF/SC-5复合材料层分布示意图与微观形貌照片

    Figure  12.  Distribution diagram and microstructure pictures of QF/SC-5 composites after high temperature ablation

    表  1  不同CNT含量的CNT/OSR气凝胶的性能参数

    Table  1.   Properties of CNT/OSR aerogels prepared at different content of CNT

    Samples Density/
    (g·cm−3)
    Average pore
    diameter/nm
    Specific pore
    area/(m2·g−1)
    Td10 a/℃ Tmax b/℃ Residues/(900℃,%)
    S-0 0.3985 56.02 112.19 486.02 494.07 71.59
    SC-2 0.3833 63.50 106.78 525.80 522.86 73.58
    SC-5 0.3659 137.39 58.33 545.92 540.13 77.83
    SC-10 0.3427 239.70 34.28 558.21 560.28 81.23
    SC-15 0.3212 368.20 23.14 597.14 573.24 83.52
    Notes:Td10 is the temperature corresponds to 10% weight loss of the materials; Tmax is the temperature corresponds to the maximum pyrolysis rate of the materials.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同QF/SC复合材料的基本性能数据

    Table  2.   Density and thermal conductivity of QF/SC composites

    Samples Density/
    (g·cm−3)
    Thermal conductivity/
    (W/(m·K)−1)
    QF/S-0 0.42663 0.054
    QF/SC-2 0.42114 0.064
    QF/SC-5 0.41384 0.069
    QF/SC-10 0.39702 0.075
    QF/SC-15 0.37182 0.064
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-04-01
  • 修回日期:  2024-05-15
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