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烧蚀时间对C/C-SiC复合材料高超声速富氧环境烧蚀机制的影响

高勇 王金金 查柏林 王玲玲 石易昂 孙振生

高勇, 王金金, 查柏林, 等. 烧蚀时间对C/C-SiC复合材料高超声速富氧环境烧蚀机制的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 39(0): 1-14
引用本文: 高勇, 王金金, 查柏林, 等. 烧蚀时间对C/C-SiC复合材料高超声速富氧环境烧蚀机制的影响[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 39(0): 1-14
Yong GAO, Jinjin WANG, Bailin ZHA, Lingling WANG, Yiang SHI, Zhensheng SUN. Effect of ablation time on ablation mechanism of C/C-SiC composites in hypersonic and oxygen-enriched environment[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: Yong GAO, Jinjin WANG, Bailin ZHA, Lingling WANG, Yiang SHI, Zhensheng SUN. Effect of ablation time on ablation mechanism of C/C-SiC composites in hypersonic and oxygen-enriched environment[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

烧蚀时间对C/C-SiC复合材料高超声速富氧环境烧蚀机制的影响

基金项目: 陕西省自然科学基金(2021JM-250)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王金金,博士,副教授,研究方向为飞行器推进系统材料及应用 E-mail:hdwangjinjin@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Effect of ablation time on ablation mechanism of C/C-SiC composites in hypersonic and oxygen-enriched environment

  • 摘要: 为了研究烧蚀时间对C/C-SiC复合材料在高超声速富氧环境下烧蚀机制的影响规律,采用富氧环境下的高超声速烧蚀试验技术,对“化学气相渗透+先驱体浸渍裂解”混合工艺制备的针刺C/C-SiC复合材料动态烧蚀机制进行研究,并采用电子扫描显微镜观察烧蚀表面形貌。研究表明:在极端苛刻的高超声速富氧烧蚀环境下,C/C-SiC复合材料能够短时抵抗高温、高压、高超声速燃气射流的氧化工作环境。材料经高超声速富氧烧蚀10 s、20 s、30 s、40 s及50 s后的质量烧蚀率分别为0.021 g/s、0.025 g/s、0.027 g/s、0.026 g/s与0.034 g/s。C/C-SiC复合材料在高超声速富氧环境下的动态烧蚀行为主要受热化学烧蚀与机械剥蚀两种烧蚀机制共同作用。在初始阶段,SiO2保护膜的存在有效阻止了氧化性组分向基体内部的扩散,仅材料中心区域存在轻微热化学烧蚀;烧蚀试验中期,材料的烧蚀主要表现为热化学烧蚀与机械剥蚀联合作用,并由热化学烧蚀向机械剥蚀呈渐变性转变;烧蚀试验后期,基体的深度反应使得材料的烧蚀主要表现为纤维与基体的大面积片状剥落。

     

  • 图  1  C/C-SiC复合材料微观形貌

    Figure  1.  Micro-morphology of the C/C-SiC composites

    图  2  高超声速富氧环境烧蚀试验系统

    Figure  2.  Ablation test system of hypersonic oxygen-enriched environment

    图  3  高压燃气发生器流场结构几何模型

    Figure  3.  Geometric model of flow field structure of high pressure gas generator

    图  4  高压燃气发生器燃气射流温度分布

    Figure  4.  Temperature distribution of gas jet in high pressure gas generator

    (a) Static temperature distribution of the symmetry plane (b) Static temperature distribution of the central axis

    图  5  高压燃气发生器燃气射流速度分布

    Figure  5.  Velocity distribution of gas jet in high pressure gas generator

    6  C/C-SiC复合材料在高超声速富氧烧蚀环境下不同时刻的动态烧蚀形貌

    6.  Dynamic ablation morphology of C/C-SiC composites at different moments in hypersonic oxygen-enriched ablation environment

    7  C/C-SiC复合材料在不同烧蚀时刻的微观形貌:(a)、(b)烧蚀10 s后的微观形貌;(c)、(d)烧蚀20 s后的微观形貌;(e)、(f)烧蚀30 s后的微观形貌;(g)、(h)烧蚀40 s后的微观形貌;(i)、(j)烧蚀50 s后的微观形貌.

    7.  Micro-morphology of C/C-SiC composites at different ablation moments:(a)、(b) Micro-morphology after 10 s ablation;(c)、(d) Micro-morphology after 20 s ablation;(e)、(f) Micro-morphology after 30 s ablation;(g)、(h) Micro-morphology after 40 s ablation;(i)、(j) Micro-morphology after 50 s ablation.

    8  C/C-SiC复合材料轴向与径向纤维在不同烧蚀时刻的微观形貌:(a)、(b)烧蚀10 s后的轴向与径向纤维;(c)、(d)烧蚀20 s后的轴向与径向纤维;(e)、(f)烧蚀30 s后的轴向与径向纤维;(g)、(h)烧蚀40 s后的轴向与径向纤维;(i)、(j)烧蚀50 s后的轴向与径向纤维.

    8.  Microscopic morphology for axial and radial fibers of C/C-SiC composites at different ablation times:(a)、(b) Axial and radial fibers after 10 s ablation;(c)、(d) Axial and radial fibers after 20 s ablation;(e)、(f) Axial and radial fibers after 30 s ablation;(g)、(h) Axial and radial fibers after 40 s ablation;(i)、(j) Axial and radial fibers after 50s ablation.

    图  9  C/C-SiC复合材料烧蚀后材料内部的氧化活性点

    Figure  9.  Oxidation active sites inside the C/C-SiC composites after ablation

    表  1  C/C-SiC复合材料在极端苛刻高超声速富氧环境下的烧蚀试验参数

    Table  1.   Ablation test parameters of C/C-SiC composites in extremely harsh hypersonic oxygen-enriched environment

    Sample No.Flow of kerosene
    /(kg·min−1)
    Flow of oxygen
    /SLM
    Oxygen enrichment degree
    /vol%
    Combustion chamber
    Pressure/MPa
    Distance
    /mm
    Time
    /s
    1#0.25005.01.008010
    2#0.25005.01.008020
    3#0.25005.01.008030
    4#0.25005.01.008040
    5#0.25005.01.008050
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  针刺C/C-SiC复合材料性能

    Table  2.   Properties of needle punched C/C-SiC composites

    Density/
    (g·cm−3)
    Thermal
    conductivity/
    (W·m−1·K−1)
    Compressive
    strength/
    MPa
    In-plane shear
    strength/
    MPa
    Bending
    strength/
    MPa
    Time/sMass ablation
    rate/
    (g·s−1)
    Rate of change
    in mass ablation
    rate/%
    1.8510.2120518.7180100.021(~10 s)/
    200.025(10-20 s)20.24
    300.027(20-30 s)10.83
    400.026(30-40 s)5.32
    500.034(40-50 s)30.00
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-22
  • 录用日期:  2022-01-06
  • 修回日期:  2021-12-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-02-16

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