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盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料的制备与性能

赵令 张浩 徐维成 申振伟 李海丽 龙红明

赵令, 张浩, 徐维成, 等. 盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料的制备与性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(9): 5085-5094. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221128.002
引用本文: 赵令, 张浩, 徐维成, 等. 盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料的制备与性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(9): 5085-5094. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221128.002
ZHAO Ling, ZHANG Hao, XU Weicheng, et al. Preparation and properties studies of shield powder/rubber flame retardant composite material[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(9): 5085-5094. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221128.002
Citation: ZHAO Ling, ZHANG Hao, XU Weicheng, et al. Preparation and properties studies of shield powder/rubber flame retardant composite material[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(9): 5085-5094. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221128.002

盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料的制备与性能

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20221128.002
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(52174290);安徽省高校协同创新项目(GXXT-2020-072);安徽省杰青项目(2208085 J19);中国博士后科学基金(2017 M612051)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    张浩,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为冶金固废无害高附加值非建材领域利用研究 E-mail: fengxu19821018@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Preparation and properties studies of shield powder/rubber flame retardant composite material

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (52174290); Collaborative Innovation of Universities in Anhui Project (GXXT-2020-072); Anhui Jieqing Project (2208085 J19); Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (2017 M612051)
  • 摘要: 利用功能助剂与普通碳钢钢渣进行混合,在超细立磨的作用下形成功能材料(简称盾粉),将盾粉替代阻燃填料氢氧化铝制备盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料。测试其硫化性能、力学性能与燃烧性能,研究分析盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料燃烧过程中气、固相残余物,以揭示盾粉在橡胶体系中的阻燃机制。研究结果表明:以钢渣为原料制备的盾粉,一方面可以促进橡胶体系的硫化过程,缩短硫化时间,提高硫化速率指数;另一方面可以替代氢氧化铝作为橡胶体系的阻燃填料且对力学性能影响极小。盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料在燃烧过程中,盾粉所含Al2O3、MgO、SiO2、Fe2O3等形成物质间形成了具有协同增效作用的阻燃-消烟体系。盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料炭渣的主要矿物组成与盾粉替代氢氧化铝比例密切相关,即炭渣矿物成分以ZnS、FeS2为主,随着替代比例的增加,矿物成分新增SiO2与MnP。

     

  • 图  1  盾粉生产工艺图

    Figure  1.  Production and technology process of shield powder

    图  2  SP/RF阻燃复合材料硫化测试结果

    Figure  2.  Vulcanization results of SP/RF retardant composite material

    ML—Minimum torque; MH—Maximum torque; tS1—Scorch time; tC90—Positive curing time; CRI—Vulcanization rate index

    图  3  SP/RF阻燃复合材料力学性能测试结果

    Figure  3.  Mechanical properties results of SP/RF flame retardant composite material

    图  4  SP/RF阻燃复合材料烟密度测试结果

    Figure  4.  Smoke density results of SP/RF retardant composite material

    图  5  SP/RF阻燃复合材料的TG曲线

    Figure  5.  TG curves of SP/RF retardant composite material

    图  6  SP/RF胶阻燃复合材料炭渣的XRD图谱

    Figure  6.  XRD patterns of SP/RF retardant composite material carbon slag

    图  7  SP/RF阻燃复合材料炭渣的拉曼图谱与SEM图像

    Figure  7.  Raman spectra and SEM images of SP/RF retardant composite material carbon slag

    ID/IG—Ratio of the area of peak D to peak G

    图  8  SP/RF阻燃复合材料硫化-阻燃机制

    Figure  8.  Vulcanization-flame retardant mechanism of SP/RF retardant composite material

    表  1  盾粉/橡胶阻燃复合材料燃烧性能测试结果

    SampleHorizontal burningVertical burning氧指数
    Burning time/sBurning speed(mm/min)Burning gradeBurning time/sPhenomenonBurning gradeOxygen-index(%)Materialgrade
    ZL03040HB18.4Drip burningV-222Slow-burning
    ZL11327HB16.3Drip burningV-224Slow-burning
    ZL290HB14.4Drip burningV-224Slow-burning
    ZL340HB13.6Drip burningV-224Slow-burning
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  1  盾粉的化学成分与粒径分布

    Table  1.   Chemical composition and particle size distribution of shield powder

    SampleChemical composition/wt%Particle diameter/µm
    CaOP2O5SiO2Al2O3MgOFe2O3MnOSO3Others905010
    Shield powder38.972.0619.314.034.2124.953.450.862.1610.043.801.13
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  盾粉(SP)/橡胶(RF)阻燃复合材料原料配比

    Table  2.   Ratio of shield powder (SP)/rubber flame (RF) retardant composite material g

    Raw materialRFSP/RF-1SP/RF-2SP/RF-3SP/RF-4
    Milled rubber 100 100 100 100 100
    Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR·150) 42.64 42.64 42.64 42.64 42.64
    Butadiene rubber (BR·900) 78.35 78.35 78.35 78.35 78.35
    Carbon black (N220) 121.64 121.64 121.64 121.64 121.64
    Shield powder (800 mesh) 0 5.54 11.09 16.53 22.07
    Aluminum hydroxide 22.07 16.53 10.98 5.54 0
    70 Chlorinated paraffins 44.24 44.24 44.24 44.24 44.24
    Zinc oxide 8.85 8.85 8.85 8.85 8.85
    Stearic acid 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24
    Antideteriorant (4010) 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24
    Antideteriorant (RD) 3.30 3.30 3.30 3.30 3.30
    Antimony oxide 6.61 6.61 6.61 6.61 6.61
    Protective wax (L-5866) 4.37 4.37 4.37 4.37 4.37
    Sulphur 4.37 4.37 4.37 4.37 4.37
    Accelerator (TT) 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40
    Accelerator (CZ) 2.45 2.45 2.45 2.45 2.45
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  SP/RF阻燃复合材料燃烧性能测试结果

    Table  3.   Combustion performance results of SP/RF retardant composite material

    SampleHorizontal burningVertical burningOxygen index
    Burning
    time/s
    Burning
    speed/
    (mm·min−1)
    Burning
    grade
    Burning
    time/s
    PhenomenonBurning
    grade
    Oxygen index/%Material grade
    ZL03040HB18.4Drip burningV-222Slow-burning
    ZL11327HB16.3Drip burningV-224Slow-burning
    ZL2 9 0HB14.4Drip burningV-224Slow-burning
    ZL3 4 0HB13.6Drip burningV-224Slow-burning
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-10-11
  • 修回日期:  2022-11-02
  • 录用日期:  2022-11-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-11-29
  • 刊出日期:  2023-09-15

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