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低密度纤维增强纳米孔树脂基复合材料的断裂机制

张鸿宇 钱震 蔡宏祥 牛波 张亚运 龙东辉

张鸿宇, 钱震, 蔡宏祥, 等. 低密度纤维增强纳米孔树脂基复合材料的断裂机制[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-9
引用本文: 张鸿宇, 钱震, 蔡宏祥, 等. 低密度纤维增强纳米孔树脂基复合材料的断裂机制[J]. 复合材料学报, 2022, 40(0): 1-9
Hongyu ZHANG, Zhen QIAN, Hongxiang CAI, Bo NIU, Yayun ZHANG, Donghui LONG. Fracture mechanism of low-density fiber reinforced nanoporous resin composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.
Citation: Hongyu ZHANG, Zhen QIAN, Hongxiang CAI, Bo NIU, Yayun ZHANG, Donghui LONG. Fracture mechanism of low-density fiber reinforced nanoporous resin composites[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica.

低密度纤维增强纳米孔树脂基复合材料的断裂机制

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金 (22078100;52102098)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    龙东辉,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为热防护材料与技术 E-mail:longdh@mail.ecust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Fracture mechanism of low-density fiber reinforced nanoporous resin composites

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (22078100;52102098)
  • 摘要: 纤维增强纳米孔树脂基复合材料(IPC)是一类轻质高效防隔热一体化耐烧蚀材料,具有典型的非均质结构特征。在外加载荷下,内部的纳米孔隙将会衍生出微裂纹。裂纹的萌生、聚合和扩展对复合材料的强度、刚度、变形性等力学性能有着重要的影响。本文分别以石英纤维针刺网胎(NQF)、石英纤维针刺网胎/布(NQCF)为增强体,制备得到不同纤维结构增强的纳米孔酚醛树脂(NPR)基复合材料(NQF/NPR、NQCF/NPR),对比研究了材料拉伸强度、拉伸模量、断裂伸长率以及拉伸疲劳性能,并采用CT原位拉伸装置表征了拉伸过程中复合材料的微观结构演变。结果表明:纤维布的引入极大提高了复合材料的力学性能,并且微裂纹首先在针刺区域边缘的树脂基体中出现。在裂纹扩展过程中,纤维结构对树脂基体的损伤起到了不同程度的阻碍作用。最后结合有限元法建立了NPR以及纤维布的有限元模型,分析了不同尺度下材料的断裂机制。

     

  • 图  1  石英纤维针刺网胎(NQF)(a)和石英纤维针刺网胎/纤维布(NQCF)(b)结构示意图;纳米孔酚醛树脂(NPR)SEM图像(c)以及粒径分布(d);NQF/NPR(e),铺层金相显微结构图(f);NQCF/NPR(g),铺层金相显微结构图(h)

    Figure  1.  Structural illustration of needled quartz fiber mesh (NQF) (a) and needled quartz fiber mesh/cloth (NQCF) (b); SEM image (c) and particle size distribution (d) of nano-porous phenolic (NPR) resin; photo of NQF/NPR (e), laying-metallographic microstructure image (f); photo of NQCF/NPR (g), laying-metallographic microstructure image (h)

    图  2  NQF/NPR、NQCF/NPR的拉伸应力-应变曲(a);NQF/NPR (b)和NQCF/NPR (c)的断口形貌;NQF/NPR中基体(d)与界面处(e)的破坏形貌

    Figure  2.  Tensile stress-strain curves of NQF/NPR and NQCF/NPR (a); fracture morphologies of NQF/NPR (b) and NQCF/NPR (c); damage morphology of phenolic resin(d) and interface (e) in NQF/NPR

    图  3  拉伸循环应力的施加形式(a);NQF/NPR (b)和NQCF/NPR (c)的破坏形貌

    Figure  3.  Application form of tensile cyclic stress(a); damage morphologies of NQF/NPR (b) NQCF/NPR (c)

    图  4  NPR的拉伸应力云图(a)、损伤变量云图(b)、损伤过程(c)

    Figure  4.  Tensile principal stress (a), damage variable (b) and damage process (c) of NRP

    图  5  不同拉伸阶段NQF/NPR二维切片:(a)初始位点;(b)弹性阶段;(c)塑性阶段;(d)断裂阶段

    Figure  5.  Two-dimensional CT slices of the NQF/NPR from X-ray CT scanning at different tensile stages: (a) Unloaded point; (b) Elastic stage; (c) Plasticity stage; (d) Fractured stage

    图  6  NQCF/NPR的拉伸应力云图(a)、断裂机制(b)

    Figure  6.  Tensile principal stress (a), fracture mechanism (c) of NQCF/NPR

    表  1  NQF/NPR、NQCF/NPR的力学性能

    Table  1.   Mechanical properties of NQF/NPR and NQCF/NPR

    CompositeDensity
    /(g·cm−3)
    Tensilestrength
    /MPa
    Tensilemodulus
    /MPa
    Elongation
    /%
    NQF/NPR0.4512.1±1.11400±2001.5±0.1
    NQCF/NPR0.5621.3±12980±2003.5±0.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  NQF/NPR与NQCF/NPR的疲劳性能

    Table  2.   Fatigue performance of NQF/NPR and NQCF/NPR

    CompositeInitial strength/
    MPa
    Strength of 55% stress level
    /MPa
    NQF/NPR18.48.1
    NQCF/NPR24.121.2
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-28
  • 录用日期:  2022-05-13
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-01

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