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碳纤维复合材料-铝合金自冲铆接头成形规律及力学性能

符平坡 丁华 曾祥瑞 王纪 罗时清 魏宗来

符平坡, 丁华, 曾祥瑞, 等. 碳纤维复合材料-铝合金自冲铆接头成形规律及力学性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(8): 4522-4535
引用本文: 符平坡, 丁华, 曾祥瑞, 等. 碳纤维复合材料-铝合金自冲铆接头成形规律及力学性能[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(8): 4522-4535
FU Pingpo, DING Hua, ZENG Xiangrui, WANG Ji, LUO Shiqing, WEI Zonglai. Forming law and mechanical property of carbon fibre reinforced plastics and aluminum alloy self-piercing riveted joint[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(8): 4522-4535.
Citation: FU Pingpo, DING Hua, ZENG Xiangrui, WANG Ji, LUO Shiqing, WEI Zonglai. Forming law and mechanical property of carbon fibre reinforced plastics and aluminum alloy self-piercing riveted joint[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(8): 4522-4535.

碳纤维复合材料-铝合金自冲铆接头成形规律及力学性能

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    丁华,学士,高级工程师,研究方向为车身轻量化工艺及智能制造 E-mail: dingh@geely.com

  • 中图分类号: TB332

Forming law and mechanical property of carbon fibre reinforced plastics and aluminum alloy self-piercing riveted joint

  • 摘要: 车身轻量化是实现车辆节能、减排和增程的重要途径,碳纤维复合材料(Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics,CFRP)以其超高比强度和良好耐蚀性,而成为极具潜力的轻量化车身材料,实现CFRP与同质和异质材料间的有效连接则是其应用于车身结构的关键环节和重大挑战。本文采用自冲铆技术开展CFRP-Al板材的连接工艺探索,通过调控冲铆速度实现对自冲铆过程接头结构演化规律的观测和分析,结合接头成形过程中的钉脚受力分析,揭示了底切值的形成机制,一方面,钉脚刺入下板后受到垂直于钉脚方向的阻力作用,推动钉脚横向刺入下板形成底切值;更为重要的是,对于深底铆模,钉脚刺入下板后脚尖受到下板材料挤压作用并构成局部力矩T,如图1(a)所示,形成脚尖的弧形外倾弯曲,如图1(b)所示,从而显著提升底切值和机械内锁强度。此外,通过对比CFRP-Al板及Al-Al板的自冲铆接头成形过程,结合底切值的形成机制,分析了CFRP-Al板接头结构随铆钉、冲铆速度和铆模尺寸的成形规律及其与Al-Al板接头的结构及性能差异。最后,基于接头成形规律进行工艺参数的综合调控优化,得到成形良好的CFRP-Al板接头结构,如图2所示,接头底切值的机械内锁强度能够达到Al-Al板接头的约89%。深底铆模接头钉脚受到局部力矩作用(a)和弧形外倾弯曲的钉脚(b)不同上板材料及厚度的自冲铆接头结构对比

     

  • 图  1  自冲铆(SPR)工艺流程[26]

    Figure  1.  Process for self-piercing riveting (SPR)[26]

    图  2  典型自冲铆铆钉(a)和铆模(b)结构示意图

    Figure  2.  Typical section structure of the rivet (a) and die (b) of SPR

    图  3  自冲铆接头结构(a)及主要失效破坏形式(b)[28]

    Figure  3.  Section structure (a) and failure modes (b) for SPR joint [28]

    图  4  试验板材结构及性能:(a) 碳纤维增强体结构;(b) 板材拉伸应力-应变曲线

    Figure  4.  Structure and performance of test plates: (a) Structure of carbon fiber reinforcement; (b) Tensile stress-strain curves

    图  5  自冲铆接头拉伸剪切试样

    Figure  5.  Tensile shear sample of SPR joint

    图  6  铆钉长度和硬度对CFRP-Al板自冲铆接头结构影响

    Figure  6.  Influence of rivet length and hardness on CFRP-Al plates SPR joint structure

    图  7  不同铆钉的CFRP-Al板自冲铆接头结构

    Figure  7.  CFRP-Al plates SPR joint structures with various rivets

    图  8  冲铆速度对CFRP-Al板自冲铆接头结构的影响

    Figure  8.  Influence of punching speed on CFRP-Al plates SPR joint structure

    图  9  冲铆速度对CFRP-Al板自冲铆接头铆钉溃缩的影响

    Figure  9.  Influence of punching speed on rivet collapse of CFRP-Al plates SPR joint

    图  10  铆模尺寸对CFRP-Al板自冲铆接头结构的影响

    Figure  10.  Influence of die dimensions on CFRP-Al plates SPR joint structure

    图  11  刺穿CFRP和铝合金上板后钉脚扩展状态:(a) 2 mm-2 mm CFRP-Al板接头,V=50 (mm·s−1);(b) 2 mm-2 mm Al-Al板接头,V=140 (mm·s−1)

    Figure  11.  Rivet flaring state after piercing the CFRP and Al upper plate: (a) 2 mm-2 mm CFRP-Al joint,V=50 (mm·s−1); (b) 2 mm-2 mm Al-Al joint,V=140 (mm·s−1)

    图  12  冲铆过程钉脚受力示意图:(a) 未张开钉脚;(b) 张开钉脚

    Figure  12.  Schematic diagram of force on rivet shank during punching process: (a) Rivet shank not flared; (b) Rivet shank flared

    图  13  低硬度铆钉的Al-Al板接头结构

    Figure  13.  Al-Al plates joint structure with low strength rivet

    图  14  不同冲铆速度下CFRP-Al板自冲铆接头结构

    Figure  14.  CFRP-Al plates SPR joint structures under various punching speeds

    图  15  CFRP-Al板自冲铆接头结构参数随冲铆速度的变化过程:(a) 刺入深度和底切值;(b) 钉脚张开值和钉头余高

    Figure  15.  Changing process of CFRP-Al plates SPR joint structural parameters with punching speed: (a) Penetration depth Ls and undercut; (b) Flare dimension and head height

    图  16  不同上板材料及厚度的自冲铆接头结构对比

    Figure  16.  Structural comparison of SPR joints with various upper plate materials and thicknesses

    图  17  不同上板材料及厚度的自冲铆接头载荷-位移曲线

    Figure  17.  Load-displacement curves of SPR joints with various upper plate materials and thicknesses

    图  18  不同上板材料及厚度的自冲铆接头失效破坏形貌

    Figure  18.  Failure morphologies of SPR joints with various upper plate materials and thicknesses

    图  19  塑性材料和脆性材料承受集中应力示意图:(a) 受集中应力情况;(b) 塑性材料对集中应力的分散;(c) 脆性材料受集中应力破坏

    Figure  19.  Schematic diagram of plastic and brittle materials bearing concentrated stress: (a) Bearing concentrated stress; (b) Dispersion of concentrated stress by plastic materials; (c) Failure of brittle materials under concentrated stress

    表  1  部分对比试验编号及工艺参数设定

    Table  1.   Partial comparative test number and process parameter setting

    ParameterNo
    12345678910111213141516*
    CFRP thickness dc/mm1222223333333322
    Rivet length L/mm55.566.56.56.57.57.57.57.57.57.57.57.566
    Rivet hardness /HV410410410410290480410410410410480480480480480410
    Punching speed V/(mm·s−1)225225225225225225225265300325300300300300225225
    Profile diameter rm/mm10101010101010101010910991010
    Profile depth dm/mm2.02.02.02.02.02.02.02.02.02.01.82.02.02.22.02.0
    Notes: No. 16* is the Al-Al plate SPR connection test.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-19
  • 修回日期:  2021-10-26
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-11-19
  • 刊出日期:  2023-08-15

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