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超短脉冲激光精细加工纤维增强树脂基复合材料的研究进展

李遥遥 侯新富 何光宇 王明伟

李遥遥, 侯新富, 何光宇, 等. 超短脉冲激光精细加工纤维增强树脂基复合材料的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(5): 2465-2479. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220804.005
引用本文: 李遥遥, 侯新富, 何光宇, 等. 超短脉冲激光精细加工纤维增强树脂基复合材料的研究进展[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(5): 2465-2479. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220804.005
LI Yaoyao, HOU Xinfu, HE Guangyu, et al. Research progress of ultrashort pulse laser precision machining fiber reinforced resin matrix composite materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(5): 2465-2479. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220804.005
Citation: LI Yaoyao, HOU Xinfu, HE Guangyu, et al. Research progress of ultrashort pulse laser precision machining fiber reinforced resin matrix composite materials[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(5): 2465-2479. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220804.005

超短脉冲激光精细加工纤维增强树脂基复合材料的研究进展

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220804.005
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(12174201)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王明伟,博士,教授,研究方向为飞秒激光科学与创新应用、太赫兹光电子学 E-mail: wangmingwei@nankai.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN249

Research progress of ultrashort pulse laser precision machining fiber reinforced resin matrix composite materials

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (12174201)
  • 摘要: 纤维增强树脂基复合材料具有轻质量、高强度、耐腐蚀和抗疲劳等优点,被广泛地应用在航空航天、风电及汽车等领域。然而纤维树脂复合材料是各向异性的非均质材料,属于典型的难加工材料,现有的加工技术存在热影响区过大、分层、起毛等问题,成为航空航天工业领域的精密加工技术瓶颈。超短脉冲激光加工作为一种新型加工技术,具有无热传递、不受物质种类限制、微小尺度、可控性强、非接触等优点,有望实现纤维复合材料的精细加工。本文在介绍目前激光加工纤维复合材料研究工作的基础上,讨论了超短脉冲激光加工以碳纤维增强树脂基复合材料为主的纤维复合材料的作用机制和提高加工质量的几种方法,指出了以突破航天工业高精度加工技术瓶颈为目的的超短脉冲激光精细加工纤维增强树脂基复合材料的研究方向、内容和科学问题,为后续实现符合航天工业高精度及大尺度要求的精密加工提供了技术路线和可能的解决方案。

     

  • 图  1  受激电子弛豫过程的时间尺度

    Figure  1.  Various processes of excited electron relaxation

    图  2  (a) 长脉冲激光加工;(b) 超短脉冲激光加工[17]

    Figure  2.  (a) Long pulse laser processing; (b) Ultrashort pulse laser processing[17]

    图  3  超短脉冲激光加工的影响因素

    CW—Continue wave; HAZ—Heat-affected zone

    Figure  3.  Influencing factors of ultrashort laser processing

    图  4  实验装置图[23]

    f—Focal length

    Figure  4.  Scheme of the experimental setup[23]

    图  5  (a) 2 mm碳纤维树脂基复合材料(CFRP)样品打孔;(b) 边缘微观形貌[23]

    Figure  5.  (a) 2 mm thick carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) samples; (b) Marginal morphology of hole edge[23]

    图  6  不同激光器和加工方法对热影响区(HAZ)的影响对比[24]

    TEA—Transversely excited atmospheric pressure; YAG—Y3Al5O12

    Figure  6.  Comparison of the effect of different lasers and machining methods on heat affected zone (HAZ)[24]

    图  7  (a)纳秒激光和连续激光;(b)超短脉冲激光(CFRP厚度为0.4 mm)[25]

    AFRP—Aramid fiberreinforced polymer

    Figure  7.  (a) Nanosecond laser and continuous laser; (b) Ultrashort pulse laser (CFRP's thickness equals 0.4 mm)[25]

    图  8  尼龙塑料聚酰胺6(PA6)、 聚醚醚酮(PEEK)、塑胶原料(PPS)和树脂的吸收光谱[31]

    Figure  8.  Absorption spectrum of Nylon plastic polyamide 6 (PA6), polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), plastic raw material (PPS) and epoxy resin[31]

    图  9  不同激光参数加工的CFRP样品的扫描电镜图像[32]

    Figure  9.  SEM images of CFRP samples processed with different laser parameters[32]

    图  10  (a) 皮秒激光加工CFRP机制图;(b) 皮秒激光“双旋转”加工方法[36]

    R—Hole radius; r—Laser rotation radius; V—Scanning speed; d—Rotation distance

    Figure  10.  (a) CFRP sublimation mechanism with the picosecond laser; (b) Picosecond laser “double rotation” cutting method[36]

    图  11  (a) 实验光路图;(b) 孔边缘HAZ形貌[26]

    Figure  11.  (a) Experimental optical path diagram; (b) Morphologies of the HAZ at the edge of the hole

    图  12  (a) 激光路径示意图;(b) 传统扫描方式;(c) 交错扫描方式[37]

    h—Scanning spacing; H—Interlaced scanning method interlaced spacing

    Figure  12.  (a) Schematic diagram of laser path; (b) Traditional scanning method; (c) Interlaced scanning method[37]

    图  13  热电阻模型:(a) 平行于纤维轴的热传导;(b) 垂直于纤维轴的热传导;(c) 激光平行纤维方向切割示意图;(d) 激光垂直纤维方向切割示意图

    Rm—Matrix's resistance; Rf—Fiber's resistance

    Figure  13.  Thermal resistance model: (a) Heat conduction parallel to the fiber axis; (b) Heat conduction perpendicular to the fiber axis; (c) Laser cutting parallel to the fiber direction; (d) Laser cutting perpendicular to the fiber direction

    图  14  飞秒激光泵浦探测实验光路

    CCD—Charge coupled device; BBO—Barium boron oxide crystal

    Figure  14.  Experimental optical path of femtosecond laser pumped detection

    图  15  飞秒激光泵浦探测全息实验光路

    SPG1, SPG2—Spatial pulse generation; PBS—Polarizing beam splitter; BS1, BS2—Beam splitter; L1, L2, L3—Lens; Delay1—Delay optical path; CCD—Charge coupled device; λ—Wave length

    Figure  15.  Experimental optical path of femtosecond laser pumped detection holography

    图  16  (a) 传统聚焦加工;(b) 飞秒激光成丝加工

    Figure  16.  (a) Traditional focusing processing; (b) Femtosecond laser filament processing

    图  17  高斯光束和平顶光束能量分布图

    I—Intensity; D—Diameter

    Figure  17.  Energy distribution of Gaussian beam and flat topped beam

    表  1  激光与非金属相互作用光电离方式

    Table  1.   Photoionization mode of laser nonmetal interaction

    Laser typePower density/(W·cm−2)Ionization mechanismsIonizations
    Long pulse laser<1013Linear effectLinear ionization, impact ionization
    Ultrafast laser>>1013Nonlinear effectMultiphoton ionization, tunneling ionization
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  各种激光源切割AFRP与CFRP的典型热影响区尺度[25]

    Table  2.   Typical heat affected zone for laser cutting AFRP and CFRP sheets[25]

    CO2 laserns laserps/fs laser
    AFRP/mm0.5-1.00.5-1.00.01-0.1
    CFRP/mm1.0-2.01.0-2.00.01-0.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同类型激光切割CFRP的HAZ

    Table  3.   HAZ of CFRP cut by different types of laser

    Laser typeWavelengthPulse lengthMachining conditionHAZRefs.
    Nd:YAG laser1064 nm10 psAverage power 80 W
    Repetition rate 0.2-10 MHz
    Focus diameter 70 μm
    <5 μm[23]
    Femtosecond laser(1028±5) nm290 fsPulse energy >0.2 mJ
    Maximum average power 10 W
    Maximum repetition rate 1100 kHz
    <10 μm[26]
    TEA CO2 laser10.6 μm8 μsAverage power 300 W
    Maximum average power 2 J
    Pulse repetition rate 150 Hz
    ~10 μm[24]
    Femtosecond laser343 nm500 fsAverage power 0-15 W
    Repetition rate 1 Hz-2 MHz
    Focus diameter 10 μm
    <25 μm[27]
    Ytterbium fiber laser1.06 μm5 nsAverage laser power 30 W
    Pulse repetition rate 30 kHz
    Scanning speed 0.5-1.5 m/s
    <50 μm[28]
    Nanosecond UV laser355 nm50 nsAverage power 0.02-20.61 W
    Repetition rate 20-100 MHz
    Pulse energy 0.4 mJ
    <50 μm[29]
    Quasi continue wave (QCW) fiber laser(1070±5) nmQCWModulation frequency 50 kHz
    Pulse energy 45 J
    Average power 450 W
    ~300 μm[30]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-25
  • 修回日期:  2022-07-15
  • 录用日期:  2022-07-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-08-05
  • 刊出日期:  2023-05-15

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