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CFRP柔性件保形加工中的变形控制

宿友亮 黎游 孟志坚 王清彬 郜雪楠 胡建

宿友亮, 黎游, 孟志坚, 等. CFRP柔性件保形加工中的变形控制[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(2): 1179-1189 doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220322.002
引用本文: 宿友亮, 黎游, 孟志坚, 等. CFRP柔性件保形加工中的变形控制[J]. 复合材料学报, 2023, 40(2): 1179-1189 doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220322.002
SU Youliang, LI You, MENG Zhijian, WANG Qingbin, GAO Xuenan, HU Jian. Deformation control in shape machining of CFRP flexible parts[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(2): 1179-1189. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220322.002
Citation: SU Youliang, LI You, MENG Zhijian, WANG Qingbin, GAO Xuenan, HU Jian. Deformation control in shape machining of CFRP flexible parts[J]. Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica, 2023, 40(2): 1179-1189. doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220322.002

CFRP柔性件保形加工中的变形控制

doi: 10.13801/j.cnki.fhclxb.20220322.002
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(51865048);机械系统与振动国家重点实验室课题(MSV202212)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    宿友亮,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为先进制造技术 E-mail: suyl@nxu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TH161;TQ327.3

Deformation control in shape machining of CFRP flexible parts

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (51865048); Research Project of State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration (MSV202212)
  • 摘要: 碳纤维增强树脂基复合材料(CFRP)柔性件的保形加工是航空航天高端装备制造的重要环节,柔性件的可靠装夹是控制加工变形、降低加工尺寸偏差的前提。首先,在理论分析的基础上,明确了柔性件装夹中夹紧及摩擦约束基本条件,提出了基于悬臂梁理论的“随形-就近”吸盘分布原则。进而,使用“ISIGHT-ABAQUS”联合仿真方法,实现了不同装夹条件及等效切削力作用下CFRP柔性件变形的仿真分析,分析表明:真空吸盘的弹性变形易加大装夹变形,应采用弹性真空吸盘与刚性定位吸盘组合的方式;定位吸盘数量为8、12或16,并“随形-就近”分布时,真空吸盘数量及分布对柔性件变形的影响可忽略。最后,仿真与实验分析了考虑定位几何量偏差时的加工尺寸偏差,仿真与实验结果规律基本一致,优化装夹后的加工尺寸偏差最大降幅达57.7 μm (35%);综上,CFRP柔性件保形加工中变形引起的加工尺寸偏差不容忽略,在“随形-就近”、“定位与真空吸盘组合”原则下优化装夹可以大幅降低变形引起的尺寸偏差。

     

  • 图  1  碳纤维增强树脂基复合材料(CFRP)柔性件约束平衡示意图

    R1—Reaction force of positioning sucker somewhere; P1—Clamping force of vacuum sucker somewhere; Fx—Tangential force; Fy—Radial force; Fz—Axial force; Ff—Friction; Fc—Milling force; G—Gravity of flexible parts

    Figure  1.  Balance schematic diagram of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) flexible part

    图  2  CFRP层合板铣削示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of milling CFRP laminates

    图  3  复合材料层合梁示意图

    L—Length of cantilever beam; B—Cross-sectional width; H—Cross-sectional height; G—Milling force; N—Number of composite laminate layers

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of composite laminates beam

    图  4  不同悬臂长度下的复合材料层合梁最大挠度

    Figure  4.  Maximum deflection of the composite laminated beam under different cantilever length

    图  5  CFRP柔性件装夹仿真模型

    F—Equivalent static force

    Figure  5.  Simulation model of clamping CFRP flexible part

    图  6  不同网格尺寸下的CFRP柔性件最大位移

    Figure  6.  Maximum displacement of CFRP flexible parts with different mesh size

    图  7  相邻网格尺寸间CFRP柔性件最大位移的差值率

    Figure  7.  Displacement difference rate of CFRP flexible parts between the adjacent mesh size

    图  8  真空和定位吸盘装夹时CFRP柔性件位移云图

    U—Displacement

    Figure  8.  Displacement nephogram of clamping CFRP flexible parts by vacuum and positioning sucker

    图  9  吸盘随机分布下的CFRP柔性件最大位移

    Figure  9.  Maximum displacement of CFRP flexible parts under random distribution of suckers

    g, r—Positioning sucker and vacuum sucker respectively in the figure

    图  10  联合仿真实验流程

    SLDPRT file—Solidwords software file formats; IGS file—Abaqus software readable 3D model file format; INP file, ODB file—Abaqus software output file format; DOE—Design of experiments

    Figure  10.  Collaborative simulation experiments

    图  11  CFRP柔性件变形测量实验系统

    Figure  11.  Experiment system of deformation measurement for CFRP flexible part

    图  12  CRFP柔性件的三维扫描点云图

    Figure  12.  Point cloud of CFRP flexible part by 3D scanning

    图  13  实验装置装配尺寸链

    1—Leveling base; 2—Bottom support profiles; 3—Connecting frame profiles; 4—Connection profiles for suckers; 5—Adapters; 6—Sucker assembly; 7—CFRP laminates; A1—Overall height of the experimental setup; A2—Installation height of leveling base; A3—Installation height of the bottom support profile; A4—Height of the bottom support profile installation position to the upper surface of the connecting frame profile; A5—Installation height of connection profiles for sucker; A6—Adaptor installation height; A7—Sucker assembly installation height; δ—Cumulative error

    Figure  13.  Assembly dimensional chain of experimental system

    图  14  定位件的三维扫描点云图

    Figure  14.  Point cloud of positioning suckers by 3D scanning

    图  15  定位吸盘的相对高度

    Figure  15.  Relative height of positioning suckers

    图  16  CFRP柔性件尺寸偏差示意

    Figure  16.  Dimensional deviation of CFRP flexible part

    图  17  自由状态下CFRP柔性件变形云图

    Figure  17.  Deformation nephogram of CFRP flexible parts under free state condition

    图  18  理想工装下CFRP柔性件位移云图

    Figure  18.  Displacement nephogram of CFRP flexible parts under ideal tooling

    图  19  不同工装条件下CFRP柔性件最大位移变化

    Figure  19.  Maximum displacement variation of CFRP flexible parts under different tooling conditions

    图  20  考虑定位几何量偏差时等效静态力作用下CFRP柔性件的位移云图

    Figure  20.  Displacement nephogram of the CFRP flexible parts under the static force considering the location geometry deviation

    图  21  不同装夹方案下CFRP柔性件的最大位移

    Figure  21.  Maximum displacement of CFRP flexible parts by different clamping conditions

    图  22  不同装夹方案下加工后CFRP柔性件的尺寸偏差

    Figure  22.  Dimensional deviation of the machined CFRP flexible parts by different clamping conditions

    表  1  T300/7901 CFRP[25]及丁腈橡胶(NBR) [26]的材料参数

    Table  1.   Material property of T300/7901 CFRP [25] and nitrile rubber (NBR)[26]

    CFRP propertyValueCFRP propertyValueNBR propertyValue
    E11/MPa 125000 G23/MPa 3980 C10 2.767
    E22/MPa 11300 v12 0.30 C01 1.439
    E33/MPa 11300 v13 0.30 D1 0.014
    G12/MPa 5430 v23 0.42
    G13/MPa 5430 ρ/(g·cm−3) 1.7
    Notes: E—Elastic modulus; G—Shear modulus; v—Poisson's ratio; 1—Direction of fiber; 2—Direction of matrix; 3—Thickness direction of layer; C10, C01, D1—Rivlin coefficient; ρ—Density.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  实验设计参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of experimental design

    FactorLevel
    Number of positioning suckers481216
    Number of vacuum suckers48
    Position distribution of positioning suckersFollowing the shape and near the point
    Position distribution of vacuum suckersRandom distribution
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  采用理想工装时等效静态力作用下的CFRP柔性件位移及标准偏差

    Table  3.   Displacement and standard deviation of CFRP flexible parts under static force by ideal tooling

    Number of positioning suckersNumber of vacuum suckersMaximum displacement/μmStandard deviationMinimum displacement/μmStandard deviation
    4 4 22.430 0.8654 19.240 0.8654
    4 8 20.410 0.5899 18.550 0.5899
    8 4 14.210 0.2146 13.740 0.2146
    8 8 13.950 0.1978 13.590 0.1978
    12 4 9.880 0.0036 9.872 0.0036
    12 8 9.872 0.0010 9.870 0.0010
    16 4 6.650 0.0000 6.650 0.0000
    16 8 6.650 0.0000 6.650 0.0000
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  实验系统内的尺寸偏差

    Table  4.   Dimensional deviation in the experimental system

    Deviation typeDeviation
    Misalignment deviation of part 1 (δ1)
    Manufacturing deviation of part 2 (δ2)±0.3 mm
    Manufacturing deviation of part 3 (δ3)±0.3 mm
    Positioning deviation of the device (δ4)
    Manufacturing deviation of part 4 (δ5)±0.3 mm
    Manufacturing deviation of part 5 (δ6)±0.2 mm
    Deviation caused by clamping force (δ7)
    Deviation caused by measuring
    instruments and methods (δ8)
    Total deviation (δ∑)
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-18
  • 修回日期:  2022-02-17
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-23
  • 刊出日期:  2023-02-01

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